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Multinational Enterprises from Small Economies: The Internationalization Pattern of Large Companies from Denmark, Finland and Norway

Author

Listed:
  • Benito, Gabriel R.G.

    (Norwegian School of Management BI)

  • Larimo, Jorma

    (University of Vaasa)

  • Narula, Rajneesh

    (University of Oslo)

  • Pedersen, Torben

    (Department of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School)

Abstract

Analyzing the internationalization of large companies from small countries requires understanding the process of internationalization by examining push-pull forces associated with the interface between micro and macro level factors. We examine the growth and international expansion of the ten largest companies in Denmark, Finland, and Norway over the period 1990 to 1999. Most companies in the sample became more international during the last decade across basically all the investigated dimensions of internationalization. This was particularly accentuated in the case of Norwegian firms, possibly due to their lower degree of internationalization at the beginning of the period. The study also shows that companies increasingly internationalized even such strategic activities as research and development activities, and headquarters functions.

Suggested Citation

  • Benito, Gabriel R.G. & Larimo, Jorma & Narula, Rajneesh & Pedersen, Torben, 2001. "Multinational Enterprises from Small Economies: The Internationalization Pattern of Large Companies from Denmark, Finland and Norway," Working Papers 13-2001, Copenhagen Business School, Department of International Economics and Management.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhb:cbsint:2001-013
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    File URL: http://openarchive.cbs.dk/cbsweb/handle/10398/6586
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Dörrenbächer, Christoph, 2000. "Measuring corporate internationalisation: A review of measurement concepts and their use," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Organization and Employment FS I 00-101, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    2. Oxelheim, Lars & Gärtner, Robert, 1993. "Small Country Manufacturing Industries in Transition - The Case of the Nordic Region," Working Paper Series 394, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    3. Soete, Luc, 1987. "The impact of technological innovation on international trade patterns: The evidence reconsidered," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(2-4), pages 101-130, August.
    4. Narula, Rajneesh, 2002. "Innovation systems and 'inertia' in R&D location: Norwegian firms and the role of systemic lock-in," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 795-816, July.
    5. Zanfei, Antonello, 2000. "Transnational Firms and the Changing Organisation of Innovative Activities," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(5), pages 515-542, September.
    6. Rajneesh Narula & John Dunning, 2000. "Industrial Development, Globalization and Multinational Enterprises: New Realities for Developing Countries," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(2), pages 141-167.
    7. Forsgren, Mats, 1990. "Managing the international multi-centre firm: Case studies from Sweden," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 261-267, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sverre Herstad & Øyvind Pålshaugen & Bernd Ebersberger, 2011. "Industrial Innovation Collaboration in a Capital Region Context," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 2(4), pages 507-532, December.

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