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Optimal Auditing with Scoring Theory and Application to Insurance Fraud

  • Georges Dionne

    (HEC Montréal - HEC MONTRÉAL)

  • Florence Giuliano

    (EconomiX - CNRS : UMR7166 - Université de Paris X - Nanterre)

  • Pierre Picard

    (CECO - Laboratoire d'econometrie de l'école polytechnique - CNRS : UMR7657 - Polytechnique - X)

Cet article établit une liaison entre la théorie de l'audit optimal et la méthodologie du scoring dans un contexte d'asymétrie d'information. L'application retenue concerne la fraude à l'assurance, mais la même approche peut être appliquée à d'autres activités qui utilisent le scoring. Nous montrons que la stratégie et l'audit optimal consistent à transmettre les demandes d'indemnité à une cellule antifraude lorsque certains indicateurs de fraude sont observés. Les indicateurs de fraude sont classés en fonction d'une probabilité de fraude croissante. Une telle stratégie demeure optimale lorsque la politique d'enquête est budgétairement contrainte. De plus, la politique d'audit agit comme un mécanisme de dissuasion et nous expliquons pourquoi elle nécessite un engagement de l'assureur et comment elle devrait affecter les incitations financières du personnel de la cellule antifraude. Le modèle est calibré avec les données d'un grand assureur européen. Nous calculons une valeur critique d'un indice de suspicion de fraude qui fournit un seuil au delà duquel toutes les demandes d'indemnité doivent être soumises à audit et nous évaluons le gain potentiel qui pourrait être dérivé de la politique d'audit optimal. Nous montrons qu'il est possible d'améliorer ces résultats en séparant différents groupes d'assurés avec des coûts psychologiques de fraude différents. Enfin nos résultats montrent comment l'effet de dissuasion peut être pris en compte et comment il affecte la stratégie optimale d'audit.

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Paper provided by HAL in its series Working Papers with number hal-00243026.

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Date of creation: 2005
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Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-00243026
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  1. Gale, Douglas & Hellwig, Martin, 1985. "Incentive-Compatible Debt Contracts: The One-Period Problem," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(4), pages 647-63, October.
  2. El Bachir Belhadji & George Dionne & Faouzi Tarkhani, 2000. "A Model for the Detection of Insurance Fraud*," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 25(4), pages 517-538, October.
  3. Robert Townsend, 1979. "Optimal contracts and competitive markets with costly state verification," Staff Report 45, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  4. Dionne, G. & St-Michel, P. & Gibbens, A., 1993. "An Economic Analysis of Insurance Fraud," Cahiers de recherche 93010, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  5. G. Dionne & R. Gagné, 2000. "Replacement Cost Endorsement and Opportunistic Fraud in Automobile Insurance," THEMA Working Papers 2000-06, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
  6. Townsend, Robert M., 1988. "Information constrained insurance : The revelation principle extended," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2-3), pages 411-450.
  7. Kofman, F. & Lawarree, J., 1990. "Collusion in Hierarchical Agency," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 91-01, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
  8. Guillen, Montserrat & Manuel Artis, 1994. "Count Data Models For A Credit Scoring System," Working Papers 021, Risk and Insurance Archive.
  9. John Knowles & Nicola Persico & Petra Todd, 1999. "Racial Bias in Motor Vehicle Searches: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7449, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Nahum D. Melumad & Dilip Mookherjee, 1989. "Delegation as Commitment: The Case of Income Tax Audits," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(2), pages 139-163, Summer.
  11. M. Martin Boyer, 2004. "Overcompensation as a Partial Solution to Commitment and Renegotiation Problems: The Case of "Ex Post" Moral Hazard," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 71(4), pages 559-582.
  12. Mookherjee, Dilip & Png, Ivan, 1989. "Optimal Auditing, Insurance, and Redistribution," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(2), pages 399-415, May.
  13. Picard, Pierre, 1996. "On the design of optimal insurance policies under manipulation of audit cost," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9605, CEPREMAP.
  14. Peter Ove Christensen, 2002. "Accounting Policies in Agencies with Moral Hazard and Renegotiation," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(4), pages 1071-1090, 09.
  15. Dionne, G., 2000. "The Empirical Measure of Information Problems with Emphasis on Insurance Fraud," Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales de Montreal- 00-04, Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales de Montreal-Chaire de gestion des risques..
  16. Crocker, Keith J & Tennyson, Sharon, 2002. "Insurance Fraud and Optimal Claims Settlement Strategies," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 469-507, October.
  17. Picard, Pierre, 1996. "Auditing claims in the insurance market with fraud: The credibility issue," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 27-56, December.
  18. Beneish, Messod D., 1997. "Detecting GAAP violation: implications for assessing earnings management among firms with extreme financial performance," Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 271-309.
  19. Nicola Persico, 2002. "Racial Profiling, Fairness, and Effectiveness of Policing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1472-1497, December.
  20. Georges Dionne & Robert Gagné, 2001. "Deductible Contracts Against Fraudulent Claims: Evidence From Automobile Insurance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(2), pages 290-301, May.
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