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Securing women's employment: A fertility booster in European countries?

Author

Listed:
  • Angela Greulich

    () (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)

  • Olivier Thevenon

    (INED - Institut national d'études démographiques)

  • Mathilde Guergoat-Larivière

    () (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, CEE - Centre d'études de l'emploi - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé)

Abstract

This article gives evidence that differences in completed fertility among European countries emerge mainly as a result of fewer women having a second child in low fertility countries and analyses the impact of women's employment on the probability of second child birth. With longitudinal data from the European Survey of Income and Living conditions (EU-SILC) and aggregated data from the OECD Family Database, we find that, on average within European countries, women in stable employment have a significantly higher probability of second childbirth than inactive or unemployed women. However, while female employment generally favours a transition to second childbirth in high-fertility countries, the impact is heterogenous in low-fertility countries. This points to a work-life balance conflict that is stronger in low-fertility countries. To address this issue, multilevel models are run to compare the role of various policies: not surprisingly, they show that childcare policies – which are the most effective policies to secure women's employment – are the most likely to encourage couples to enlarge their families and that the positive effect of stable employment on fertility is reinforced by this policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Angela Greulich & Olivier Thevenon & Mathilde Guergoat-Larivière, 2016. "Securing women's employment: A fertility booster in European countries?," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-01298862, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:hal-01298862
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01298862
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Olivier Thévenon, 2011. "Family Policies in OECD Countries: A Comparative Analysis," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 37(1), pages 57-87, March.
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    4. Schmitt, Christian, 2012. "Labour Market Integration, Occupational Uncertainty, and Fertility Choices in Germany and the UK," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 253-292.
    5. Angela Luci & Olivier Thevenon, 2011. "The impact of family policy packages on fertility trends in developed countries," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00657603, HAL.
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    10. Hippolyte d’Albis & Paula Gobbi & Angela Greulich, 2015. "Access to Childcare and Second Child Arrival in European Countries," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2015010, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
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    Cited by:

    1. Hippolyte d'Albis & Angela Greulich & Grégory Ponthière, 2017. "Education, labour, and the demographic consequences of birth postponement in Europe," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 36(23), pages 691-728, February.

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    Keywords

    low fertility; female employment; work-life balance; Europe; family enlargement;

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