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Convergence in the United States: a tale of migration and urbanization

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  • Riccardo DiCecio
  • Charles S. Gascon

Abstract

We use non-parametric distribution dynamics techniques to reassess the convergence of per capita personal income (PCPI) across U.S. states and across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan portions of states for the period 1969-2005. The long-run distribution of PCPI is bimodal for both states and metro/nonmetro portions. Further- more, the high income mode of the distribution across metro and nonmetro portions corresponds to the single mode of the long-run distribution across metro portions only. These results (polarization or club-convergence) are reversed when weighting by population. The long run distributions across people are consistent with convergence. Migration and urbanization are the forces behind convergence.

Suggested Citation

  • Riccardo DiCecio & Charles S. Gascon, 2008. "Convergence in the United States: a tale of migration and urbanization," Working Papers 2008-002, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2008-002
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. Durlauf, Steven N. & Quah, Danny T., 1999. "The new empirics of economic growth," Handbook of Macroeconomics,in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 235-308 Elsevier.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Peter Huber & Gabriele Tondl, 2012. "Migration and regional convergence in the European Union," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 439-460, November.
    2. Hildegunn Stokke & Jörn Rattsö, 2011. "Income convergence, migration and geography: Distribution analysis of regions in Norway," ERSA conference papers ersa10p174, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Ganong, Peter & Shoag, Daniel, 2012. "Why Has Regional Convergence in the U.S. Stopped?," Working Paper Series rwp12-028, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    4. Peter Ganong & Daniel W. Shoag, 2017. "Why Has Regional Income Convergence in the U.S. Declined?," NBER Working Papers 23609, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Ganong, Peter Nathan & Shoag, Daniel W, 2012. "Why Has Regional Convergence in the U.S. Stopped?," Scholarly Articles 9361381, Harvard Kennedy School of Government.

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    Keywords

    Migration; Internal ; Income distribution;

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