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Income Convergence across U.S. States: An Analysis Using Measures of Concordance and Discordance

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  • Don J. Webber
  • Paul White
  • David O. Allen

Abstract

This paper presents methods to analyze convergence in cross-sectional data collected over time using distribution free statistics that are not sensitive to the magnitudes involved. Measures of concordance and discordance are employed in the empirical analysis of real personal income per capita for 48 U.S. States over the period 1929-2002. Although most States are converging with each other, some are converging faster than others. The methods used have the flexibility to focus on specific characteristics such as convergence in absolute differences or convergence in the ratio of rewards. The methods may also be used to consider convergence without switching and additionally be applied to other features such as the percentiles of the distributions. Copyright Blackwell Publishers, 2005

Suggested Citation

  • Don J. Webber & Paul White & David O. Allen, 2005. "Income Convergence across U.S. States: An Analysis Using Measures of Concordance and Discordance," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(3), pages 565-589.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jregsc:v:45:y:2005:i:3:p:565-589
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    Cited by:

    1. Novotný, JOSEF, 2011. "Convergence and divergence in living standards among regions of the enlarged European Union (1992-2006)," MPRA Paper 34145, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Thomas A. Garrett & Russell M. Rhine, 2011. "Economic freedom and employment growth in U.S. states," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 1-18.
    3. Rey, Sergio, 2016. "Space-time patterns of rank concordance: Local indicators of mobility association with application to spatial income inequality dynamics," MPRA Paper 69480, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Cletus C. Coughlin & Thomas A. Garrett & Rubén Hernández-Murillo, 2007. "Spatial Dependence in Models of State Fiscal Policy Convergence," Public Finance Review, , vol. 35(3), pages 361-384, May.
    5. Sergio Rey, 2014. "Rank-based Markov chains for regional income distribution dynamics," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 115-137, April.
    6. Riccardo DiCecio & Charles S. Gascon, 2008. "Convergence in the United States: a tale of migration and urbanization," Working Papers 2008-002, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    7. Jesús Rodríguez-López & Diego Martínez-López & Diego Romero-Ávila, 2009. "Persistence of inequalities across the Spanish regions," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 88(4), pages 841-862, November.
    8. Melanie Rapino & Benjamin Spaulding & Dean M. Hanink, 2006. "Have Per Capita Earnings and Income Converged across New England?," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(4), pages 620-637.
    9. Thomas A. Garrett, 2007. "The rise in personal bankruptcies: the Eighth Federal Reserve District and beyond," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 15-38.
    10. Josef Novotný, 2010. "Regionální ekonomická konvergence, divergence a další aspekty distribuční dynamiky evropských regionů v období 1992-2006
      [Regional Convergence, Divergence and Other Aspects of Distributional Dynami
      ," Politická ekonomie, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2010(2), pages 166-185.
    11. Ismail H. GENC & Anil RUPASINGHA, 2009. "Time-series Tests of Stochastic Earnings Convergence across US Nonmetropolitan Counties, 1969-2004," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 9(2).
    12. Fousekis, Panos, 2007. "Convergence of Relative State-level Per Capita Incomes in the United States Revisited," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 0(Issue 2), pages 1-10.

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