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The value of inside and outside money

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  • James B. Bullard
  • Bruce D. Smith

Abstract

We study dynamic economies in which agents may have incentives to hold both privately-issued (a.k.a. inside) and publicly-issued (a.k.a. outside) circulating liabilities as part of an equilibrium. Our analysis emphasizes spatial separation and limited communication as frictions that motivate monetary exchange. We isolate conditions under which a combination of inside and outside money does and does not allow the economy to achieve a first-best allocation of resources. We also study the extent to which the use of private circulating liabilities alone, or the use of public circulating liabilities alone, can address the frictions that lead to monetary exchange. We identify conditions under which both types of liabilities are essential to efficiency. However, even when these conditions are satisfied, we show that political economy considerations may lead to a prohibition against private circulating liabilities. Finally, we analyze the consequences of such a prohibition for the determinacy of equilibrium, and for endogenously arising volatility.

Suggested Citation

  • James B. Bullard & Bruce D. Smith, 2001. "The value of inside and outside money," Working Papers 2000-027, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2000-027
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Burdett, Kenneth & Trejos, Alberto & Wright, Randall, 2001. "Cigarette Money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 99(1-2), pages 117-142, July.
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    5. Ricardo de O. Cavalcanti & Neil Wallace, 1999. "Inside and outside money as alternative media of exchange," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 443-468.
    6. Gale, David, 1973. "Pure exchange equilibrium of dynamic economic models," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 12-36, February.
    7. Bullard, James & Smith, Bruce D., 2003. "Intermediaries and payments instruments," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 172-197, April.
    8. Townsend, Robert M, 1987. "Economic Organization with Limited Communication," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 954-971, December.
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    10. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1989. "On Money as a Medium of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 927-954, August.
    11. Costas Azariadis & James B. Bullard & Lee E. Ohanian, 1998. "Complex eigenvalues and trend-reverting fluctuations," Staff Report 255, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    12. Bruce Champ & Bruce D. Smith & Stephen D. Williamson, 1996. "Currency Elasticity and Banking Panics: Theory and Evidence," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(4), pages 828-864, November.
    13. Sargent, Thomas J & Wallace, Neil, 1982. "The Real-Bills Doctrine versus the Quantity Theory: A Reconsideration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1212-1236, December.
    14. Temzelides, Ted & Williamson, Stephen D., 2001. "Private money, settlement, and discounts," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 85-108, June.
    15. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1993. "A Search-Theoretic Approach to Monetary Economics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 63-77, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. David C. Mills, Jr, 2008. "Imperfect Monitoring And The Discounting Of Inside Money," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 49(3), pages 737-754, August.
    2. Li, Yan, 2009. "The theory of fiat money and private money as alternative media of exchange," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 568-582, October.
    3. Bullard, James & Smith, Bruce D., 2003. "Intermediaries and payments instruments," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 172-197, April.
    4. Bullard, James & Smith, Bruce D., 2003. "The value of inside and outside money," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 389-417, March.
    5. Xavier Cuadras-Morató, 2009. "Circulation Of Private Notes During A Currency Shortage," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 77(4), pages 461-478, July.
    6. Marco Arnone & Luca Bandiera, 2004. "Monetary Policy, Monetary Areas, and Financial Development with Electronic Money," IMF Working Papers 04/122, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Sissoko, Carolyn, 2007. "An Idealized View of Financial Intermediation," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 1, pages 1-29.
    8. Ghossoub, Edgar A. & Reed, Robert R., 2014. "The cost of capital, asset prices, and the effects of monetary policy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 211-228.
    9. Sun, Hongfei, 2007. "Banking, Inside Money and Outside Money," Queen's Economics Department Working Papers 273622, Queen's University - Department of Economics.
    10. Bullard, James B. & Singh, Aarti, 2016. "Incomplete Credit Markets and Monetary Policy with Heterogeneous Labor Supply : a presentation at Bank of Korea 2016 Conference, Employment and Growth, Seoul, Korea, May 30, 2016," Speech 270, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    11. Sun, Hongfei, 2007. "Banking, Inside Money and Outside Money," MPRA Paper 4504, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Lacker, Jeffrey M. & Weinberg, John A., 2003. "Payment economics: studying the mechanics of exchange," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 381-387, March.
    13. Marko Backovic & Zoran Popovic, 2012. "The Analysis Of Model Of General Economic Equilibrium And Financial Instability Of Economic System," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 8(1), pages 63-85.

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    Keywords

    Money ; Money theory;

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