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The value of inside and outside money

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  • Bullard, James
  • Smith, Bruce D.

Abstract

We study dynamic economies in which agents may have incentives to hold both privately-issued (a.k.a. inside) and publicly-issued (a.k.a. outside) circulating liabilities as part of an equilibrium. Our analysis emphasizes spatial separation and limited communication as frictions that motivate monetary exchange. We isolate conditions under which a combination of inside and outside money does and does not allow the economy to achieve a first-best allocation of resources. We also study the extent to which the use of private circulating liabilities alone, or the use of public circulating liabilities alone, can address the frictions that lead to monetary exchange. We identify conditions under which both types of liabilities are essential to efficiency. However, even when these conditions are satisfied, we show that political economy considerations may lead to a prohibition against private circulating liabilities. Finally, we analyze the consequences of such a prohibition for the determinacy of equilibrium, and for endogenously arising volatility.
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  • Bullard, James & Smith, Bruce D., 2003. "The value of inside and outside money," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 389-417, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:moneco:v:50:y:2003:i:2:p:389-417
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    Cited by:

    1. Bullard, James & Smith, Bruce D., 2003. "The value of inside and outside money," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 389-417, March.
    2. Sun, Hongfei, 2007. "Banking, Inside Money and Outside Money," MPRA Paper 4504, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Ghossoub, Edgar A. & Reed, Robert R., 2014. "The cost of capital, asset prices, and the effects of monetary policy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 211-228.
    4. Sun, Hongfei, 2007. "Banking, Inside Money and Outside Money," Queen's Economics Department Working Papers 273622, Queen's University - Department of Economics.
    5. Bullard, James B. & Singh, Aarti, 2016. "Incomplete Credit Markets and Monetary Policy with Heterogeneous Labor Supply : a presentation at Bank of Korea 2016 Conference, Employment and Growth, Seoul, Korea, May 30, 2016," Speech 270, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    6. Bullard, James & Smith, Bruce D., 2003. "Intermediaries and payments instruments," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 172-197, April.
    7. David C. Mills, Jr, 2008. "Imperfect Monitoring And The Discounting Of Inside Money," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 49(3), pages 737-754, August.
    8. Xavier Cuadras-Morató, 2009. "Circulation Of Private Notes During A Currency Shortage," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 77(4), pages 461-478, July.
    9. Li, Yan, 2009. "The theory of fiat money and private money as alternative media of exchange," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 568-582, October.
    10. Lacker, Jeffrey M. & Weinberg, John A., 2003. "Payment economics: studying the mechanics of exchange," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 381-387, March.
    11. Marco Arnone & Luca Bandiera, 2004. "Monetary Policy, Monetary Areas, and Financial Development with Electronic Money," IMF Working Papers 04/122, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Sissoko, Carolyn, 2007. "An Idealized View of Financial Intermediation," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 1, pages 1-29.
    13. Marko Backovic & Zoran Popovic, 2012. "The Analysis Of Model Of General Economic Equilibrium And Financial Instability Of Economic System," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 8(1), pages 63-85.

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