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Private money creation and the Suffolk Banking System

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  • Bruce D. Smith
  • Warren E. Weber

Abstract

Recent legislation has removed U.S. legal impediments to issuing private bank notes. At the same time, improved transaction technologies have enabled banks and other entities to issue various forms of "e-cash." Consequently, developed economies may soon see the reemergence of privately issued substitutes for currency. The authors examine the potential economic consequences using the Bank of Suffolk as a model.
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Suggested Citation

  • Bruce D. Smith & Warren E. Weber, 1999. "Private money creation and the Suffolk Banking System," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 624-667.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedcpr:y:1999:p:624-667
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Stacey L. Schreft & Bruce D. Smith, 1998. "The Effects of Open Market Operations in a Model of Intermediation and Growth," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(3), pages 519-550.
    2. Arthur J. Rolnick & Warren E. Weber, 1988. "Explaining the demand for free bank notes," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 21-35.
    3. Azariadis, Costas & Smith, Bruce, 1998. "Financial Intermediation and Regime Switching in Business Cycles," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 516-536, June.
    4. Schreft, Stacey L. & Smith, Bruce D., 1997. "Money, Banking, and Capital Formation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 157-182, March.
    5. Townsend, Robert M, 1987. "Economic Organization with Limited Communication," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 954-971, December.
    6. Douglas W. Diamond & Philip H. Dybvig, 2000. "Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 14-23.
    7. Arthur J. Rolnick & Bruce D. Smith & Warren E. Weber, 1998. "Lessons from a laissez-faire payments system: the Suffolk Banking System (1825-58)," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Sum, pages 11-21.
    8. Rockoff, Hugh, 1974. "The Free Banking Era: A Reexamination," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 6(2), pages 141-167, May.
    9. Lake, Wilfred S., 1947. "The End of the Suffolk System," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(02), pages 183-207, November.
    10. Bruce Champ & Bruce D. Smith & Stephen D. Williamson, 1996. "Currency Elasticity and Banking Panics: Theory and Evidence," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(4), pages 828-864, November.
    11. Sargent, Thomas J. & Wallace, Meil, 1983. "A model of commodity money," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 163-187.
    12. Neil Wallace, 1988. "Another attempt to explain an illiquid banking system: the Diamond and Dybvig model with sequential service taken seriously," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Fall, pages 3-16.
    13. Calomiris, Charles W & Kahn, Charles M, 1996. "The Efficiency of Self-Regulated Payments Systems: Learning from the Suffolk System," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 766-797, November.
    14. Rolnick, Arthur J. & Weber, Warren E., 1984. "The causes of free bank failures : A detailed examination," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 267-291, November.
    15. Rolnick, Arthur J & Weber, Warren E, 1983. "New Evidence on the Free Banking Era," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 1080-1091, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bossone, Biagio, 2001. "Do banks have a future?: A study on banking and finance as we move into the third millennium," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2239-2276, December.
    2. Temzelides, Ted & Williamson, Stephen D., 2001. "Private money, settlement, and discounts," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 85-108, June.
    3. Azariadis, Costas & Bullard, James & Smith, Bruce D., 2001. "Private and Public Circulating Liabilities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 99(1-2), pages 59-116, July.
    4. Antinolfi, Gaetano & Huybens, Elisabeth & Keister, Todd, 2001. "Monetary Stability and Liquidity Crises: The Role of the Lender of Last Resort," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 99(1-2), pages 187-219, July.
    5. Li, Yan, 2009. "The theory of fiat money and private money as alternative media of exchange," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 568-582, October.
    6. Andolfatto, David & Nosal, Ed, 2009. "Money, intermediation, and banking," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 289-294, April.
    7. Stephen D. Williamson, 2002. "Private money and counterfeiting," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Sum, pages 37-57.
    8. Smith, Bruce D., 2001. "Banks, short-term debt and financial crises: theory, policy implications, and applications A comment," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 73-83, June.
    9. Daniel Sanches, 2016. "On the Inherent Instability of Private Money," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 20, pages 198-214, April.
    10. Young, Andrew T. & Dove, John A., 2013. "Policing the chain gang: Panel cointegration analysis of the stability of the Suffolk System, 1825–1858," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 182-196.
    11. Bullard, James & Smith, Bruce D., 2003. "The value of inside and outside money," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 389-417, March.
    12. James B. Bullard & Bruce D. Smith, 2001. "The value of inside and outside money: expanded version," Working Papers 2001-011, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    13. Christian Hellwig, 2002. "Money, Intermediaries, and Cash-in-Advance Constraints (February 2003)," UCLA Economics Online Papers 207, UCLA Department of Economics.
    14. Todd Keister, 2009. "Central Bank Lending and Inflation," 2009 Meeting Papers 782, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    15. Arthur J. Rolnick & Bruce D. Smith & Warren E. Weber, 2000. "The Suffolk Bank and the Panic of 1837," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 3-13.
    16. Williamson, Stephen, 2009. "Liquidity, Financial Intermediation, and Monetary Policy in a New Monetarist Model," MPRA Paper 20692, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Daniel R. Sanches, 2013. "Banking crises and the role of bank coalitions," Working Papers 13-28, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, revised 04 Feb 2014.
    18. Gaetano Antinolfi & Todd Keister, 2000. "Liquidity Crises and Discount Window Lending: Theory and Implications for the Dollarization Debate," Working Papers 0002, Centro de Investigacion Economica, ITAM.
    19. Bossone, Biagio, 2000. "What makes banks special ? a study of banking, finance, and economic development," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2408, The World Bank.
    20. Michel, Philippe & Wigniolle, Bertrand, 2003. "Temporary bubbles," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 112(1), pages 173-183, September.
    21. Gentier Antoine, 2013. "3 Comments on “An Austrian Defense of the Euro”," Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines, De Gruyter, vol. 19(1), pages 29-40, December.
    22. Stephen Williamson, 2000. "The Research Agenda: Payment Systems and Private Money," EconomicDynamics Newsletter, Review of Economic Dynamics, vol. 2(1), November.
    23. Norman, Ben & Shaw, Rachel & Speight, George, 2011. "The history of interbank settlement arrangements: exploring central banks’ role in the payment system," Bank of England working papers 412, Bank of England.

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    Keywords

    Bank notes ; Banks and banking - History;

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