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A framework for economic forecasting


  • Neil R. Ericsson
  • Jaime R. Marquez


This paper proposes a tripartite framework of design, evaluation, and post-evaluation analysis for generating and interpreting economic forecasts. This framework's value is illustrated by re-examining mean square forecast errors from dynamic models and nonlinearity biases from empirical forecasts of U.S. external trade. Previous studies have examined properties such as nonlinearity bias and the possible nonmonotonicity and nonexistence of mean square forecast errors in isolation from other aspects of the forecasting process, resulting in inefficient forecasting techniques and seemingly puzzling phenomena. The framework developed reveals how each such property follows from systematically integrating all aspects of the forecasting process.

Suggested Citation

  • Neil R. Ericsson & Jaime R. Marquez, 1998. "A framework for economic forecasting," International Finance Discussion Papers 626, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:626

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bianchi, Carlo & Calzolari, Giorgio & Brillet, Jean-Louis, 1987. "Measuring forecast uncertainty : A review with evaluation based on a macro model of the French economy," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 211-227.
    2. Brown, Bryan W. & Mariano, Roberto S., 1989. "Predictors in Dynamic Nonlinear Models: Large-Sample Behavior," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(03), pages 430-452, December.
    3. Calzolari, Giorgio, 1979. "Antithetic variates to estimate the simulation bias in non-linear models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 323-328.
    4. Baillie, Richard T, 1981. "Prediction from the Dynamic Simultaneous Equation Model with Vector Autoregressive Errors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(5), pages 1331-1337, September.
    5. Calzolari, Giorgio, 1981. "A Note on the Variance of Ex-Post Forecasts in Econometric Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1593-1595, November.
    6. Calzolari, Giorgio & Sterbenz, Frederic P, 1986. "Control Variates to Estimate the Reduced Form Variances in Econometric Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(6), pages 1483-1490, November.
    7. Beach, Charles M & MacKinnon, James G, 1978. "A Maximum Likelihood Procedure for Regression with Autocorrelated Errors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 51-58, January.
    8. Calzolari, Giorgio, 1987. "Forecast Variance in Dynamic Simulation of Simultaneous Equation Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(6), pages 1473-1476, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Neil R. Ericsson, 2000. "Predictable uncertainty in economic forecasting," International Finance Discussion Papers 695, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    2. Neil R. Ericsson, 2001. "Forecast uncertainty in economic modeling," International Finance Discussion Papers 697, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    3. Jenny X. Li & Peter Winker, 2003. "Time Series Simulation with Quasi Monte Carlo Methods," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 21(1_2), pages 23-43, February.
    4. John Galbraith, 1999. "Content Horizons for Forecasts of Economic Time Series," CIRANO Working Papers 99s-17, CIRANO.
    5. Daniel Wilson, 2003. "Embodying Embodiment in a Structural, Macroeconomic Input-Output Model," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 371-398.
    6. Guillaume Chevillon, 2007. "Direct Multi-Step Estimation And Forecasting," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 746-785, September.
    7. Ericsson Neil R., 2008. "Comment on "Economic Forecasting in a Changing World" (by Michael Clements and David Hendry)," Capitalism and Society, De Gruyter, vol. 3(2), pages 1-18, October.
    8. Clements, Michael P. & Galv O, Ana Beatriz C., 2003. "Testing The Expectations Theory Of The Term Structure Of Interest Rates In Threshold Models," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(04), pages 567-585, September.

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