IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

A fully-rational liquidity-based theory of IPO underpricing and underperformance

  • Matthew Pritsker
Registered author(s):

    I present a fully-rational symmetric-information model of an IPO, and a dynamic imperfectly competitive model of trading in the IPO aftermarket. The model helps to explain IPO underpricing, underperformance, and why share allocations favor large institutional investors. In the model, underwriters need to sell a fixed number of shares at the IPO or in the aftermarket. To maximize revenue and avoid selling into the aftermarket where they can be exploited by large investors, underwriters distort share allocations towards investors with market power, and set the IPO offer price below the aftermarket trading price. Large investors who receive IPO share allocations sell them slowly afterwards to reduce their trade's price-impact. This curtails the shares that are available to small price-taking investors, causing them to bid up prices and bid down returns. In some simulations, the distorted share allocations and slow unwinding behavior generate post-IPO return underperformance that persists for several years.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/2006/200612/200612abs.html
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/2006/200612/200612pap.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 2006-12.

    as
    in new window

    Length:
    Date of creation: 2006
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2006-12
    Contact details of provider: Postal: 20th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20551
    Web page: http://www.federalreserve.gov/
    More information through EDIRC

    Order Information: Web: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/fedsorder.html

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Jay Ritter & Ivo Welch, 2002. "A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing and Allocations," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm258, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Apr 2002.
    2. Tim Loughran & Jay Ritter, 2004. "Why Has IPO Underpricing Changed Over Time?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 33(3), Fall.
    3. Biais, Bruno & Bossaerts, Peter & Rochet, Jean-Charles, 2002. "An Optimal IPO Mechanism," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(1), pages 117-46, January.
    4. Alexander Ljungqvist & Vikram Nanda & Rajdeep Singh, 2006. "Hot Markets, Investor Sentiment, and IPO Pricing," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(4), pages 1667-1702, July.
    5. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Spindt, Paul A., 1989. "How investment bankers determine the offer price and allocation of new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 343-361.
    6. Paul Schultz, 2003. "Pseudo Market Timing and the Long-Run Underperformance of IPOs," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(2), pages 483-518, 04.
    7. Eckbo, B Espen & Norli, Øyvind, 2005. "Liquidity Risk, Leverage and Long-Run IPO Returns," CEPR Discussion Papers 4832, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Aggarwal, Reena, 2003. "Allocation of initial public offerings and flipping activity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 111-135, April.
    9. Francesca Cornelli & David Goldreich, 2003. "Bookbuilding: How Informative Is the Order Book?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(4), pages 1415-1443, 08.
    10. Kihlstrom, Richard, 2001. "Monopoly power in dynamic securities markets," Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 428, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
    11. S. Viswanathan & Bin Wei, 2008. "Endogenous Events and Long-Run Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(2), pages 855-888, April.
    12. Booth, James R. & Chua, Lena, 1996. "Ownership dispersion, costly information, and IPO underpricing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 291-310, June.
    13. Katrina Ellis & Roni Michaely & Maureen O'Hara, 2002. "The Making of a Dealer Market: From Entry to Equilibrium in the Trading of Nasdaq Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 2289-2316, October.
    14. Rock, Kevin, 1986. "Why new issues are underpriced," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 187-212.
    15. Dimitri Vayanos, 2001. "Strategic Trading in a Dynamic Noisy Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(1), pages 131-171, 02.
    16. FranÁois Derrien & Kent L. Womack, 2003. "Auctions vs. Bookbuilding and the Control of Underpricing in Hot IPO Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 31-61.
    17. Shane A. Corwin & Jeffrey H. Harris & Marc L. Lipson, 2004. "The Development of Secondary Market Liquidity for NYSE-Listed IPOs," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2339-2374, October.
    18. Merton, Robert C., 1987. "A simple model of capital market equilibrium with incomplete information," Working papers 1869-87., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    19. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R., 2000. "Uniformly least powerful tests of market efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 361-389, March.
    20. Jenkinson, Tim & Jones, Howard, 2002. "Bids and Allocations in European IPO Bookbuilding," CEPR Discussion Papers 3644, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    21. Jonathan Reuter, 2006. "Are IPO Allocations for Sale? Evidencefrom Mutual Funds," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(5), pages 2289-2324, October.
    22. Katrina Ellis & Roni Michaely & Maureen O'Hara, 2000. "When the Underwriter Is the Market Maker: An Examination of Trading in the IPO Aftermarket," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(3), pages 1039-1074, 06.
    23. Butler, Alexander W. & Grullon, Gustavo & Weston, James P., 2005. "Stock Market Liquidity and the Cost of Issuing Equity," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(02), pages 331-348, June.
    24. Andrew Ellul & Marco Pagano, 2006. "IPO Underpricing and After-Market Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(2), pages 381-421.
    25. Alon Brav & Christopher Geczy & Paul A. Gompers, . "Is the Abnormal Return Following Equity Issuances Anomalous?," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 2-99, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2006-12. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kris Vajs)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.