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Geographic Versus Industry Diversification: Contraints Matter

  • Paul EHLING

    (Penn State University, Smeal College)

  • Sofia B. RAMOS

    (ISCTE Business School)

This research addresses whether geographic diversification provides benefits over industry diversification in a sample of European country and industry indexes. The methodology allows performance comparisons with short-selling constraints, upper and lower bounds, and many benchmarks. In the absence of constraints, no empirical evidence is found to support the argument that country diversification is a superior approach. In the case of realistic weights on portfolios such as short-selling, and lower or upper bonds, geographic diversification performs (sig-nificantly) better. The contrary results appear to be attributable to the fact that industry portfolios are better suited to eliminate the single dominant factor risk in stock returns. Further out-of-sample analysis shows that geographic diversification performs better, although the tests do not show statistical significance.

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Paper provided by International Center for Financial Asset Management and Engineering in its series FAME Research Paper Series with number rp113.

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Date of creation: Aug 2004
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Handle: RePEc:fam:rpseri:rp113
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  6. John M. Griffin & G. Andrew Karolyi, . "Another Look at the Role of the Industrial Structure of Markets for International Diversification Strategies," Research in Financial Economics 9608, Ohio State University.
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  8. Ravi Jagannathan & Tongshu Ma, 2002. "Risk Reduction in Large Portfolios: Why Imposing the Wrong Constraints Helps," NBER Working Papers 8922, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Robin Brooks & Marco Del Negro, 2002. "The Rise in Comovement Across National Stock Markets; Market Integration or Global Bubble?," IMF Working Papers 02/147, International Monetary Fund.
  10. Dusan Isakov & Frédéric Sonney, 2004. "Are Practitioners Right? On the Relative Importance of Industrial Factors in International Stock Returns," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 140(III), pages 355-379, September.
  11. Basak, Gopal & Jagannathan, Ravi & Sun, Guoqiang, 2002. "A direct test for the mean variance efficiency of a portfolio," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 26(7-8), pages 1195-1215, July.
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  15. Green, R.C. & Hollifield, B., 1990. "When Will Mean-Variance Efficient Portfolios Be Well Diversified?," GSIA Working Papers 1990-12, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
  16. Breen, William & Glosten, Lawrence R & Jagannathan, Ravi, 1989. " Economic Significance of Predictable Variations in Stock Index Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(5), pages 1177-89, December.
  17. Mark Britten-Jones, 1999. "The Sampling Error in Estimates of Mean-Variance Efficient Portfolio Weights," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 655-671, 04.
  18. Beckers, Stan & Grinold, Richard & Rudd, Andrew & Stefek, Dan, 1992. "The relative importance of common factors across the European equity markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 75-95, February.
  19. Francesca Carrieri & Vihang Errunza & Sergei Sarkissian, 2004. "Industry Risk and Market Integration," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 50(2), pages 207-221, February.
  20. Heston, Steven L. & Rouwenhorst, K. Geert, 1994. "Does industrial structure explain the benefits of international diversification?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 3-27, August.
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  22. Arshanapalli, Bala & Doukas, John & Lang, Larry H. P., 1997. "Common volatility in the industrial structure of global capital markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 189-209, April.
  23. Robin Brooks & Marco Del Negro, 2002. "International diversification strategies," Working Paper 2002-23, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
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