IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Time to IPO: Role of heterogeneous venture capital


  • MIYAKAWA Daisuke


Venture Capital (VC) is often syndicated to invest. The characteristics of each syndicate can vary not only in the number of VC but also in the heterogeneity of VC types included in a syndicate (e.g., bank-dependent, independent, and public etc.). This paper empirically studies how these two characteristics are related to the dynamics of client firms' Initial Public Offerings (IPOs). We test whether the IPOs of VC-backed entrepreneurial firms tend to be achieved in shorter periods when financed by many and/or heterogeneous VC. The results of our hazard estimation show that the hazard ratio of IPOs increases not only when the number of VC sources in a syndicate increases but also when the VC become more heterogeneous. The latter result implies the existence of the complementarity among heterogeneous VC in the process of screening and managerial value added. We also confirm that such positive impact of heterogeneous VC becomes more sizable in the absence of bank-dependent VC. This implies that complementarity among VC arises when the uncertainty about venture firms, which could diminish, for example, due to the existence of informed VC, remains high.

Suggested Citation

  • MIYAKAWA Daisuke & TAKIZAWA Miho, 2013. "Time to IPO: Role of heterogeneous venture capital," Discussion papers 13022, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  • Handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:13022

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Benjamin F. Jones, 2009. "The Burden of Knowledge and the "Death of the Renaissance Man": Is Innovation Getting Harder?," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 76(1), pages 283-317.
    2. Malcolm Baker & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2000. "The Equity Share in New Issues and Aggregate Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 2219-2257, October.
    3. Manigart, Sophie & De Waele, Koen & Wright, Mike & Robbie, Ken & Desbrieres, Philippe & Sapienza, Harry J. & Beekman, Amy, 2002. "Determinants of required return in venture capital investments: a five-country study," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 291-312, July.
    4. Kiefer, Nicholas M, 1988. "Economic Duration Data and Hazard Functions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 26(2), pages 646-679, June.
    5. Paul Steffens & Siri Terjesen & Per Davidsson, 2012. "Birds of a feather get lost together: new venture team composition and performance," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 727-743, October.
    6. Ritter, Jay R, 1984. "The "Hot Issue" Market of 1980," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(2), pages 215-240, April.
    7. James A. Brander & Raphael Amit & Werner Antweiler, 2002. "Venture-Capital Syndication: Improved Venture Selection vs. The Value-Added Hypothesis," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(3), pages 423-452, September.
    8. Roberto G. Gutierrez, 2002. "Parametric frailty and shared frailty survival models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(1), pages 22-44, February.
    9. Kaoru Hosono & Masayo Tomiyama & Tsutomu Miyagawa, 2004. "Corporate governance and research and development: Evidence from Japan," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 141-164.
    10. Giot, Pierre & Schwienbacher, Armin, 2007. "IPOs, trade sales and liquidations: Modelling venture capital exits using survival analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 679-702, March.
    11. Thomas Hellmann & Laura Lindsey & Manju Puri, 2008. "Building Relationships Early: Banks in Venture Capital," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(2), pages 513-541, April.
    12. Mike Wright & Andy Lockett, 2003. "The Structure and Management of Alliances: Syndication in the Venture Capital Industry," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(8), pages 2073-2102, December.
    13. Douglas J. Cumming, 2006. "The Determinants of Venture Capital Portfolio Size: Empirical Evidence," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(3), pages 1083-1126, May.
    14. Christian Hopp, 2010. "When do venture capitalists collaborate? Evidence on the driving forces of venture capital syndication," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 417-431, November.
    15. Xuan Tian, 2011. "The Role of Venture Capital Syndication in Value Creation for Entrepreneurial Firms," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 16(1), pages 245-283.
    16. Hellmann, Thomas & Puri, Manju, 2000. "The Interaction between Product Market and Financing Strategy: The Role of Venture Capital," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(4), pages 959-984.
    17. Barton H. Hamilton & Jack A. Nickerson & Hideo Owan, 2003. "Team Incentives and Worker Heterogeneity: An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Teams on Productivity and Participation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(3), pages 465-497, June.
    18. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2001. "The Venture Capital Revolution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 145-168, Spring.
    19. Sapienza, Harry J., 1992. "When do venture capitalists add value?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 9-27, January.
    20. Tykvova, Tereza & Walz, Uwe, 2007. "How important is participation of different venture capitalists in German IPOs?," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 350-378, March.
    21. Ritter, Jay R, 1991. " The Long-run Performance of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 3-27, March.
    22. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
    23. Cumming, Douglas & Fleming, Grant & Suchard, Jo-Ann, 2005. "Venture capitalist value-added activities, fundraising and drawdowns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 295-331, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:13022. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (KUMAGAI, Akiko). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.