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Gender Wage Differentials: New Cross-Country Evidence


  • Tim Callan

    (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI))

  • S. Adam

    (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI))

  • S. Dex

    (ESRC Research Center for Miro-Social Change, UK)

  • S. Gustafsson

    (University of Amsterdam)

  • J. Schupp

    (DIW, Germany)

  • N. Smith

    (Aarhus School of Business, Denmark)


This paper compares the most commonly quoted female-to-male wage ratios (based on hourly earnings in manufacturing) and ratios based on a harmonized analysis of household surveys. The surveys include employees of all types in all sectors--thereby overcoming the problems associated with a lack of comprehensive coverage and differences in definition. Countries studies include Sweden, Australia, Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. The article then adjusts wage ratios for differences in educational qualifications and labor market experience, using a human capital specification of the wage equation. The authors conclude that the extent of the wage gaps between countries may be overstated by the figures based on workers in manufacturing: figures based on harmonized analysis of household surveys find some degree of convergence around a higher central tendency. Wage ratios adjusted for educational qualifications and years worked converge even more around a higher mean.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

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  • Tim Callan & S. Adam & S. Dex & S. Gustafsson & J. Schupp & N. Smith, 1995. "Gender Wage Differentials: New Cross-Country Evidence," Papers WP062, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:esr:wpaper:wp062

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gunderson, Morley, 1989. "Male-Female Wage Differentials and Policy Responses," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 27(1), pages 46-72, March.
    2. Jenkins, Stephen P., 1994. "Earnings discrimination measurement : A distributional approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 81-102, March.
    3. Callan, Tim & Wren, Anne, 1994. "Male-Female Wage Differentials: Analysis and Policy Issues," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number GRS163.
    4. Wright, Robert E & Ermisch, John F, 1991. "Gender Discrimination in the British Labour Market: A Reassessment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(406), pages 508-522, May.
    5. Phipps, Shelley A, 1990. "Gender Wage Differences in Australia, Sweden and the United States," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 36(4), pages 365-379, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Brookes, Michael, 2001. "Gender Earnings Mobility: A Comparison of Relative Mobility in Germany and the UK," IRISS Working Paper Series 2001-02, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
    2. Susan Harkness & Jane Waldfogel, 1999. "The Family Gap in Pay: Evidence from Seven Industrialised Countries," CASE Papers 030, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE.
    3. Callan, Tim & Keeney, Mary J. & Nolan, Brian & Walsh, John R., 2001. "Reforming Tax and Welfare," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number PRS42.

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