IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/erg/wpaper/633.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Female Wages in the Egyptian Textiles and Clothing Industry: Low Pay or Discrimination?

Author

Listed:
  • Amirah El-Haddad

    (Cairo University)

Abstract

Analysis of the wage gap has most usually been carried out across the formal sector as a whole, missing nuances of differences in pay in specific occupations. This paper analyses data from a new survey of firms and workers in the textiles and clothing sector collected in 2009. These data allow explanation of the sector’s gender wage gap by poorer endowments, relegation of women to low–paying firms and occupations and by within-firm and within-occupation differential in returns. There is a pay gap in this sector, with men receiving an hourly wage 29 percent higher than that of women. This gap arises partly as women are concentrated in the lower paid occupations and lower-paying firms. There is clear glass ceiling in effect with women least represented in the highest paying management positions. Somewhat surprisingly, differences in returns favor women, and, the intra-occupational pay gap is reversed once characteristics, including firm characteristics, are controlled for. Failure to control for firm characteristics (as in most studies) will over-estimate the gap. Outright discrimination is the sole reason for discrimination within the sector and could be partially explained by the difference between the role society expects of men and that it expects of women, the former being the main bread earner. The largest of the pay gap is attributable to differences in endowments such as worker education and experience (more than 70 per cent of the gap). Thus, closing the pay gap is not just a matter of equal pay for equal work, as is now being discussed in Egypt, but of enhancing women’s capabilities to ensure equality of opportunity on entering the labor force.

Suggested Citation

  • Amirah El-Haddad, 2011. "Female Wages in the Egyptian Textiles and Clothing Industry: Low Pay or Discrimination?," Working Papers 633, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 Jan 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:erg:wpaper:633
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://erf.org.eg/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/633.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://bit.ly/2mJW2iC
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Joseph E. Zveglich Jr. & Yana van der Meulen Rodgers, 2004. "Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in a Dynamic East Asian Economy," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 70(4), pages 850-875, April.
    2. Barry Reilly & Puja Vasudeva Dutta, 2005. "The Gender Pay Gap and Trade Liberalisation: Evidence for India," PRUS Working Papers 32, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.
    3. Stephanie Seguino, 1997. "Gender wage inequality and export-led growth in South Korea," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(2), pages 102-132.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Huynh, Phu., 2016. "Assessing the gender pay gap in Asia's garment sector," ILO Working Papers 994904713402676, International Labour Organization.
    2. Ahmed Fayez Abdelgouad, 2014. "Labor Law Reforms and Labor Market Performance in Egypt," Working Paper Series in Economics 314, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Günseli Berik & Yana van der Meulen Rodgers & Joseph E. Zveglich, Jr., 2002. "Does Trade Promote Gender Wage Equity? Evidence from East Asia," SCEPA working paper series. 2002-14, Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA), The New School.
    2. Maryam Jamielaa, 2018. "Trade openness and female-male earnings differentials: Evidence from Indonesia," Economic Journal of Emerging Markets, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Department of Economics, vol. 10(1), pages 82-92, April.
    3. Woojin Chung & Jaeyeun Kim & Seung-ji Lim & Sunmi Lee, 2018. "Sex-specific role of education on the associations of socioeconomic status indicators with obesity risk: A population-based study in South Korea," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 13(1), pages 1-16, January.
    4. Taniya Ghosh & Sanika Sulochani Ramanayake, 2018. "Women empowerment and good times: Which one leads to the other?," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2018-004, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    5. Adem Y. Elveren, 2014. "Women's labour force participation and pay inequality: evidence from panel cointegration," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(12), pages 862-865, August.
    6. Bishop, John A. & Grodner, Andrew & Liu, Haiyong & Chiou, Jong-Rong, 2007. "Gender earnings differentials in Taiwan: A stochastic frontier approach," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 934-945, December.
    7. Günseli Berik & Ebru Kongar, 2011. "Time Use of Mothers and Fathers in Hard Times and Better Times: the U.S. Business Cycle of 2003-2010," Working Paper Series, Department of Economics, University of Utah 2011_16, University of Utah, Department of Economics.
    8. Oscar Molina Tejerina & Luis Castro Peñarrieta, 2020. "Unexplained Wage Gaps in the Tradable and Nontradable Sectors: Cross-Sectional Evidence by Gender in Bolivia," Investigación & Desarrollo 0120, Universidad Privada Boliviana, revised Nov 2020.
    9. Pooreum Ryu & Dohyeon Kim, 2020. "Moderating effect of gender on the opportunity recognition and entrepreneurial intention," Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, VsI Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, vol. 8(1), pages 725-740, September.
    10. Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. & Tan, Michelle, 2011. "Noncognitive skills, occupational attainment, and relative wages," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-13, January.
    11. Braunstein, Elissa, 2000. "Engendering Foreign Direct Investment: Family Structure, Labor Markets and International Capital Mobility," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1157-1172, July.
    12. Somasree Poddar & Sarbajit Chaudhuri, 2016. "Economic Reforms and Gender-Based Wage Inequality in the Presence of Factor Market Distortions," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 14(2), pages 301-321, December.
    13. Eric Neumayer & Indra De Soysa, 2007. "Globalisation, Women's Economic Rights and Forced Labour," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(10), pages 1510-1535, October.
    14. Matthias Busse & Christian Spielmann, 2006. "Gender Inequality and Trade," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(3), pages 362-379, August.
    15. Chamarbagwala, Rubiana, 2006. "Economic Liberalization and Wage Inequality in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 1997-2015, December.
    16. Gunseli Berik, 2000. "Mature Export-Led Growth and Gender Wage Inequality in Taiwan," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 1-26.
    17. Shaianne T. Osterreich, 2019. "Gender and Comparative Advantage: Feminist–Heterodox Theorizing about Globalization," Economies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(2), pages 1-12, May.
    18. Azam, Mehtabul, 2012. "Changes in Wage Structure in Urban India, 1983–2004: A Quantile Regression Decomposition," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1135-1150.
    19. Mukhopadhyay, Ujjaini & Chaudhuri, Sarbajit, 2011. "Economic liberalization, gender wage inequality and welfare – a theoretical analysis," MPRA Paper 32954, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Datta Gupta, Nabanita, 2002. "Gender, pay and development: a cross-country analysis," MPRA Paper 15311, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:erg:wpaper:633. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/erfaceg.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sherine Ghoneim (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/erfaceg.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.