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Gender Discrimination in the Tunisian Labor Market: The Youth Crisis

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  • Mohamed Amara

    () (Higher School of Economic and Commercial Sciences of Tunis)

  • Wajih Khallouli
  • Faycel Zidi

Abstract

This paper combines micro-level and macro-level approaches into a unified empirical design to understand the gender gap in Tunisian labor market participation. We use a multilevel propensity score matching analysis in order to reduce selection bias by accounting for the random effects across areas in a hierarchical data structure. Our empirical evidence suggests that despite the admirable progresses in women’s rights and human capital in Tunisia, labor force participation rates are still higher for men than for women. This discrepancy between men and women in their labor market force participation generates a per capita income loss of 20 per cent.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohamed Amara & Wajih Khallouli & Faycel Zidi, 2018. "Gender Discrimination in the Tunisian Labor Market: The Youth Crisis," Working Papers 1263, Economic Research Forum, revised 07 Feb 2018.
  • Handle: RePEc:erg:wpaper:1263
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Arpino, Bruno & Mealli, Fabrizia, 2011. "The specification of the propensity score in multilevel observational studies," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 1770-1780, April.
    2. Zvi Eckstein & Osnat Lifshitz, 2011. "Dynamic Female Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 79(6), pages 1675-1726, November.
    3. Mohamed Amara & Mohamed Ayadi, 2011. "Local Employment Growth in the Coastal Area of Tunisia: A Dynamic Spatial Panel Approach," Working Papers 650, Economic Research Forum, revised 12 Jan 2011.
    4. Massimiliano Bratti, 2003. "Labour force participation and marital fertility of Italian women: The role of education," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 16(3), pages 525-554, August.
    5. Angela Cipollone & Eleonora Patacchini & Giovanna Vallanti, 2014. "Female labour market participation in Europe: novel evidence on trends and shaping factors," IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-40, December.
    6. J. Paul Elhorst, 1996. "A Regional Analysis of Labour Force Participation Rates across the Member States of the European Union," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(5), pages 455-465.
    7. Ragui Assaad & Samir Ghazouani & Caroline Krafft & Dominique J. Rolando, 2016. "Introducing the Tunisia Labor Market Panel Survey 2014," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-21, December.
    8. David Cuberes & Marc Teignier, 2014. "Gender Inequality And Economic Growth: A Critical Review," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(2), pages 260-276, March.
    9. Congregado, Emilio & Golpe, Antonio A. & van Stel, André, 2011. "Exploring the big jump in the Spanish unemployment rate: Evidence on an 'added-worker' effect," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1099-1105, May.
    10. Debowicz, Darío & Golan, Jennifer, 2014. "The impact of Oportunidades on human capital and income distribution in Mexico: A top-down/bottom-up approach," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 24-42.
    11. David Cuberes & Marc Teignier, 2012. "Gender Gaps in the Labor Market and Aggregate Productivity," Working Papers 2012017, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics.
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