Reversing the Perspective: Multinational Activity from Middle-Income Countries
The organization of production within the multinational corporation (MNC) depends on the relative factor abundance of the home country and the destination country. This proposition is at the heart of the theory of the multinational corporation (MNCs) that Helpman (1984, 1985) and Helpman and Krugman (1985) developed and that is primarily conceived from the perspective of the advanced, developed countries. It rationalizes one-way, North-South MNC activity; MNCs from capital-abundant nations break up domestic production and relocate the labor-intensive parts to low-wage countries. I show how two-way MNC activities are implied by the theory that Helpman and Krugman develop and how these are essential to understand MNCs from middle-income countries: these MNCs relocate labor-intensive activities to more labor-abundant countries, they also move capital-intensive components to more capital-abundant countries. I use unique South Korean firm-level data to investigate this hypothesis. I provide evidence from the affiliates of South Koreaï¿½s MNCs that bears out this prediction. I also formally test the implications of the hypothesis for the parentsï¿½ capital-intensity with a panel of South Korean MNC parents (1980-1996). Relocating to more capital-abundant countries indeed decreases the parentï¿½s capital-labor ratio, whereas relocating to more labor-abundant countries increase this ratio.
|Date of creation:||11 Aug 2004|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Phone: 1 212 998 3820|
Fax: 1 212 995 4487
Web page: http://www.econometricsociety.org/pastmeetings.asp
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Feenstra, Robert C. & Hanson, Gordon H., 1997.
"Foreign direct investment and relative wages: Evidence from Mexico's maquiladoras,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 42(3-4), pages 371-393, May.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1995. "Foreign Direct Investment and Relative Wages: Evidence from Mexico's Maquiladoras," NBER Working Papers 5122, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Haddad, Mona & Harrison, Ann, 1993. "Are there positive spillovers from direct foreign investment? : Evidence from panel data for Morocco," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 51-74, October.
- Elhanan Helpman, 1985. "Multinational Corporations and Trade Structure," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 52(3), pages 443-457.
- Gordon H. Hanson & Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr. & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2001.
"Expansion Strategies of U.S. Multinational Firms,"
NBER Working Papers
8433, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kim, June-Dong & Rang, In-Soo, 1997. "Outward FDI and exports: The case of South Korea and Japan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 39-50.
- Brainard, S Lael, 1997. "An Empirical Assessment of the Proximity-Concentration Trade-off between Multinational Sales and Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 520-44, September.
- Davis, D.R. & Weinstein, D.E., 1999.
"An Account of Global Factor Trade,"
435, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Donald R. Davis & David E. Weinstein, 1998. "An Account of Global Factor Trade," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1849, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Donald R. Davis & David E. Weinstein, 1998. "An Account of Global Factor Trade," NBER Working Papers 6785, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Roberts, Mark J & Tybout, James R, 1997. "The Decision to Export in Colombia: An Empirical Model of Entry with Sunk Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 545-64, September.
- Deardorff, A.V., 1998.
"Fragmentation Across Cones,"
98-14, Michigan - Center for Research on Economic & Social Theory.
- Bernard, Andrew B. & Bradford Jensen, J., 1999.
"Exceptional exporter performance: cause, effect, or both?,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 1-25, February.
- Bernard, A., 1997. "Exceptional Exporter Performance: Cause, Effect, or Both?," Working papers 97-21, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 1997. "Exceptional Exporter Performance: Cause, Effect, or Both?," NBER Working Papers 6272, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rodriguez-Clare, Andres, 1996. "Multinationals, Linkages, and Economic Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(4), pages 852-73, September.
- Markusen, James R., 1984. "Multinationals, multi-plant economies, and the gains from trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3-4), pages 205-226, May.
- Arndt, Sven W., 1997. "Globalization and the open economy," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 71-79.
- repec:fth:michin:427 is not listed on IDEAS
- James R. Markusen, 1995. "The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 169-189, Spring.
- Head, Keith & Ries, John, 2002. "Offshore production and skill upgrading by Japanese manufacturing firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 81-105, October.
- James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "General-Equilibrium Approaches to the Multinational Firm: A Review of Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 8334, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Debaere, Peter & Demiroglu, Ufuk, 2003. "On the similarity of country endowments," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 101-136, January.
- Debeare, Peter, 2003. "Relative Factor Abundance and Trade," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(3), pages 589-610, June.
- S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "A Simple Theory of Multinational Corporations and Trade with a Trade-Off Between Proximity and Concentration," NBER Working Papers 4269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ann E. Harrison & Brian J. Aitken, 1999. "Do Domestic Firms Benefit from Direct Foreign Investment? Evidence from Venezuela," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 605-618, June.
- Dunning,John H. & Hoesel,Roger,van & Narula,Rajneesh, 1996. "Explaining the 'new' wave of outward FDI from developing coountries : the case of Taiwan and Korea," Research Memorandum 009, Maastricht University, Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
- Robert E. Lipsey, 2001. "Foreign Direct Investment and the Operations of Multinational Firms: Concepts, History, and Data," NBER Working Papers 8665, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecm:nasm04:140. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christopher F. Baum)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.