Why High Leverage Is Optimal for Banks
Liquidity production is a central role of banks. When there is a market premium for the production of (socially valuable) liquid financial claims and no other departures from the Modigliani and Miller (1958, MM) assumptions, we show that high leverage is optimal for banks. In this model, high leverage is not the result of distortions from agency problems, deposit insurance, or tax motives to borrow. The model can explain (i) why bank leverage increased over the last 150 years or so without invoking any of these distortions, (ii) why high bank leverage per se does not necessarily cause systemic risk, and (iii) why limits on the leverage of regulated banks impede their ability to compete with unregulated shadow banks. MM's leverage irrelevance theorem is inapplicable to banks: Because debt-equity neutrality assigns zero weight to the social value of liquidity, it is an inappropriately equity-biased baseline for assessing whether the high leverage ratios of real-world banks are excessive or socially destructive.
|Date of creation:||May 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Phone: (614) 292-8449|
Web page: http://www.cob.ohio-state.edu/fin/dice/list.htm
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Franklin Allen & Elena Carletti, 2013.
"Deposits and Bank Capital Structure,"
477, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
- Miller, Merton H, 1977. "Debt and Taxes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 261-75, May.
- Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1996.
"Private and Public Supply of Liquidity,"
NBER Working Papers
5817, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Nicola Gennaioli, 2012.
"A Model of Shadow Banking,"
2012 Meeting Papers
89, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Nicola Gennaioli & Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 2011. "A model of shadow banking," Economics Working Papers 1283, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised May 2012.
- Nicola Gennaioli & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, . "A Model of Shadow Banking," Working Paper 19521, Harvard University OpenScholar.
- Nicola Gennaioli & Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 2011. "A Model of Shadow Banking," Working Papers 576, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
- Gennaioli, Nicola & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 2013. "A Model of Shadow Banking," Scholarly Articles 11688792, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Nicola Gennaioli & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 2011. "A Model of Shadow Banking," NBER Working Papers 17115, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jeremy C. Stein, 2012. "Monetary Policy as Financial Stability Regulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 127(1), pages 57-95.
- Merton H. Miller & Franco Modigliani, 1961. "Dividend Policy, Growth, and the Valuation of Shares," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34, pages 411.
- Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1999.
"Liquidity Risk, Liquidity Creation and Financial Fragility: A Theory of Banking,"
NBER Working Papers
7430, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1998. "Liquidity risk, liquidity creation and financial fragility: a theory of banking," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Sep.
- Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2001. "Liquidity Risk, Liquidity Creation, and Financial Fragility: A Theory of Banking," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(2), pages 287-327, April.
- Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, . "Liquidity Risk, Liquidity Creation and Financial Fragility: A Theory of Banking," CRSP working papers 476, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- Gorton, Gary & Pennacchi, George, 1990. " Financial Intermediaries and Liquidity Creation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(1), pages 49-71, March.
- Diamond, Douglas W & Dybvig, Philip H, 1983.
"Bank Runs, Deposit Insurance, and Liquidity,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(3), pages 401-19, June.
- Arvind Krishnamurthy & Annette Vissing-Jorgensen, 2012. "The Aggregate Demand for Treasury Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 120(2), pages 233 - 267.
- Gorton, Gary B., 2010. "Slapped by the Invisible Hand: The Panic of 2007," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199734153, March.
- Miller, Merton H., 1995. "Do the M & M propositions apply to banks?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 483-489, June.
- Samuel G. Hanson & Anil K. Kashyap & Jeremy C. Stein, 2011. "A Macroprudential Approach to Financial Regulation," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 3-28, Winter.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecl:ohidic:2013-08. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.