IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ecl/harjfk/rwp04-022.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Are Banks Liquidity Transformers?

Author

Listed:
  • Deep, Akash

    (Harvard U)

  • Schaefer, Guido

    (Vienna U of Economics and Business Administration)

Abstract

Although much of banking theory and regulation is based on banks modeled as fragile liquidity transformers, this view does not appear to have solid empirical foundation. We show that the amount of liquidity transformation measured as the scaled difference between liquid liabilities and assets performed by US commercial banks is surprisingly low. Deposit insurance has limited success in promoting liquidity transformation because insured deposits mostly replace uninsured liabilities rather than expand the deposit base or loans. Instead, it is the credit risk in loan portfolios that appears to discourage liquidity transformation.

Suggested Citation

  • Deep, Akash & Schaefer, Guido, 2004. "Are Banks Liquidity Transformers?," Working Paper Series rwp04-022, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecl:harjfk:rwp04-022
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://research.hks.harvard.edu/publications/getFile.aspx?Id=457
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Holmstrom, Bengt & Tirole, Jean, 2000. "Liquidity and Risk Management," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(3), pages 295-319, August.
    2. Kareken, John H., 1987. "The emergence and regulation of contingent commitment banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 359-377, September.
    3. Focarelli, Dario & Panetta, Fabio & Salleo, Carmelo, 2002. "Why Do Banks Merge?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(4), pages 1047-1066, November.
    4. Armen Hovakimian & Edward J. Kane, 2000. "Effectiveness of Capital Regulation at U.S. Commercial Banks, 1985 to 1994," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 451-468, February.
    5. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2001. "Banks and Liquidity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 422-425, May.
    6. Flannery, Mark J, 1981. "Market Interest Rates and Commercial Bank Profitability: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(5), pages 1085-1101, December.
    7. John H. Boyd & Mark Gertler, 1993. "US Commercial Banking: Trends, Cycles, and Policy," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1993, Volume 8, pages 319-377, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Boot, Arnoud W. A. & Thakor, Anjan V., 1991. "Off-balance sheet liabilities, deposit insurance and capital regulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 825-846, September.
    9. Avery, Robert B. & Berger, Allen N., 1991. "Loan commitments and bank risk exposure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 173-192, February.
    10. Flannery, Mark J, 1983. "Interest Rates and Bank Profitability: Additional Evidence," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 15(3), pages 355-362, August.
    11. Bhattacharya Sudipto & Thakor Anjan V., 1993. "Contemporary Banking Theory," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 2-50, October.
    12. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1998. "Private and Public Supply of Liquidity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 1-40, February.
    13. Russell Cooper & Thomas W. Ross, 2002. "Bank Runs: Deposit Insurance and Capital Requirements," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 43(1), pages 55-72, February.
    14. Kydland, Finn E & Prescott, Edward C, 1982. "Time to Build and Aggregate Fluctuations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1345-1370, November.
    15. Flannery, Mark J & James, Christopher M, 1984. "The Effect of Interest Rate Changes on the Common Stock Returns of Financial Institutions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1141-1153, September.
    16. Calomiris, Charles W., 1989. "The motivations for loan commitments backing commercial paper : A comment on `commercial paper, bank reserve requirements, and the informational role of loan commitments'," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 271-277, May.
    17. Douglas W. Diamond & Philip H. Dybvig, 2000. "Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, vol. 24(Win), pages 14-23.
    18. Viral V. Acharya & Iftekhar Hasan & Anthony Saunders, 2002. "Should banks be diversified? evidence from individual bank portfolios," Proceedings 836, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    19. Jacklin, Charles J & Bhattacharya, Sudipto, 1988. "Distinguishing Panics and Information-Based Bank Runs: Welfare and Policy Implications," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(3), pages 568-592, June.
    20. J. Tobin, 1958. "Liquidity Preference as Behavior Towards Risk," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(2), pages 65-86.
    21. Deborah J. Lucas & Robert L. McDonald, 1992. "Bank Financing and Investment Decisions with Asymmetric Information about Loan Quality," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(1), pages 86-105, Spring.
    22. Rime, Bertrand, 2001. "Capital requirements and bank behaviour: Empirical evidence for Switzerland," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 789-805, April.
    23. Anil K. Kashyap & Raghuram Rajan & Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Banks as Liquidity Providers: An Explanation for the Coexistence of Lending and Deposit‐taking," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 33-73, February.
    24. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2001. "Liquidity Risk, Liquidity Creation, and Financial Fragility: A Theory of Banking," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(2), pages 287-327, April.
    25. Raj Aggarwal & Kevin T. Jacques, 1998. "Assessing the impact of prompt corrective action on bank capital and risk," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 4(Oct), pages 23-32.
    26. Niehans, Jurg & Hewson, John, 1976. "The Eurodollar Market and Monetary Theory," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 8(1), pages 1-27, February.
    27. Bryant, John, 1980. "A model of reserves, bank runs, and deposit insurance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 335-344, December.
    28. Bhattacharya, Sudipto & Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan V, 1998. "The Economics of Bank Regulation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 745-770, November.
    29. Rogers, Kevin & SinkeyJr., Joseph F., 1999. "An analysis of nontraditional activities at U.S. commercial banks," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 25-39, June.
    30. Calomiris, Charles W & Kahn, Charles M, 1991. "The Role of Demandable Debt in Structuring Optimal Banking Arrangements," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(3), pages 497-513, June.
    31. Viral V. Acharya & Iftekhar Hasan & Anthony Saunders, 2006. "Should Banks Be Diversified? Evidence from Individual Bank Loan Portfolios," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(3), pages 1355-1412, May.
    32. Boot, Arnoud W A & Greenbaum, Stuart I & Thakor, Anjan V, 1993. "Reputation and Discretion in Financial Contracting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1165-1183, December.
    33. Anil K. Kashyap & Raghuram G. Rajan & Jeremy C. Stein, 1998. "Banks as liquidity providers: an explanation for the co-existence of lending and deposit-taking," Proceedings 582, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    34. Cebenoyan, A. Sinan & Strahan, Philip E., 2004. "Risk management, capital structure and lending at banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 19-43, January.
    35. Shrieves, Ronald E. & Dahl, Drew, 1992. "The relationship between risk and capital in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 439-457, April.
    36. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    37. Steven R. Grenadier & Brian J. Hall, 1995. "Risk-Based Capital Standards and the Riskiness of Bank Portfolios: Credit and Factor Risks," NBER Working Papers 5178, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    38. Allen N. Berger & Anil K. Kashyap & Joseph M. Scalise, 1995. "The Transformation of the U.S. Banking Industry: What a Long, Strange Trips It's Been," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(2), pages 55-218.
    39. Angbazo, Lazarus, 1997. "Commercial bank net interest margins, default risk, interest-rate risk, and off-balance sheet banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 55-87, January.
    40. Mosebach, Michael, 1999. "Market response to banks granting lines of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(11), pages 1707-1723, November.
    41. Holmstrom, Bengt & Tirole, Jean, 1996. "Modeling Aggregate Liquidity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 187-191, May.
    42. Boyd, John H. & Graham, Stanley L. & Hewitt, R. Shawn, 1993. "Bank holding company mergers with nonbank financial firms: Effects on the risk of failure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 43-63, February.
    43. Kanatas, George, 1987. "Commercial paper, bank reserve requirements, and the informational role of loan commitments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 425-448, September.
    44. Steven R. Renadier & Brian J. Hall, 1995. "Risk-Based Capital Standards and the Riskiness of Bank Portfolios: Credit and Factor Risks," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1718, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    45. William B English, 2002. "Interest rate risk and bank net interest margins," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, December.
    46. Cooper, Russell & Ross, Thomas W., 1998. "Bank runs: Liquidity costs and investment distortions," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 27-38, February.
    47. Billett, Matthew T & Flannery, Mark J & Garfinkel, Jon A, 1995. "The Effect of Lender Identity on a Borrowing Firm's Equity Return," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(2), pages 699-718, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Zuzana Fungáčová & Laurent Weill & Mingming Zhou, 2017. "Bank Capital, Liquidity Creation and Deposit Insurance," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 97-123, February.
    2. Chatterjee, Ujjal K., 2015. "Bank liquidity creation and asset market liquidity," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 139-153.
    3. Viral V. Acharya & Robert F. Engle III & Sascha Steffen, 2021. "Why Did Bank Stocks Crash During COVID-19?," NBER Working Papers 28559, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Kapoor, Supriya & Peia, Oana, 2021. "The impact of quantitative easing on liquidity creation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 122(C).
    5. Supriya Kapoor & Oana Peia, 2020. "The Impact of Quantitative Easing on Liquidity Creation," Working Papers 202009, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    6. de Haan, Leo & van den End, Jan Willem, 2013. "Bank liquidity, the maturity ladder, and regulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 3930-3950.
    7. Lei, Adrian C.H. & Song, Zhuoyun, 2013. "Liquidity creation and bank capital structure in China," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 188-202.
    8. Muhammad Umar & Gang Sun, 2016. "Non-performing loans (NPLs), liquidity creation, and moral hazard: Case of Chinese banks," China Finance and Economic Review, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 1-23, December.
    9. Sclip, Alex & Girardone, Claudia & Miani, Stefano, 2019. "Large EU banks’ capital and liquidity: Relationship and impact on credit default swap spreads," The British Accounting Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 438-461.
    10. Brian Du, 2020. "Securitized banking and interest rate sensitivity," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 54(3), pages 851-876, April.
    11. Baltas, Konstantinos N. & Kapetanios, George & Tsionas, Efthymios & Izzeldin, Marwan, 2017. "Liquidity creation through efficient M&As: A viable solution for vulnerable banking systems? Evidence from a stress test under a panel VAR methodology," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 36-56.
    12. Chen, Ting-Hsuan & Chou, Hsiu-Hsia & Chang, Yuan & Fang, Hao, 2015. "The effect of excess lending on bank liquidity : Evidence from China," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 54-68.
    13. Zouheir Bouchaddakh & Mohamed Mekki Ben Jemaa, 2016. "Risk Sharing Vs Risk Bearing and Shifting: Evidence from Conventional and Islamic Banks of MENA Region Using Metafrontier Directional Distance Functions," Working Papers 1042, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 Jan 2016.
    14. Distinguin, Isabelle & Roulet, Caroline & Tarazi, Amine, 2013. "Bank regulatory capital and liquidity: Evidence from US and European publicly traded banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 3295-3317.
    15. Seba Mohanty & Jitendra Mahakud, 2021. "Causal Nexus Between Liquidity Creation and Bank Capital Ratio: Evidence from India," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 15(2), pages 205-237, May.
    16. Jalali Farahani , Alireza & Sargolzaee , Mostafa & Dehghan Nayeri , Leila & Ghaffari Nejad , Amir Hossein, 2020. "Effects of Capital Raising on Liquidity Creation and Credit in the Banking System of Iran," Journal of Money and Economy, Monetary and Banking Research Institute, Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, vol. 15(1), pages 101-121, January.
    17. Isabelle Distinguin & Caroline Roulet & Amine Tarazi, 2012. "Bank regulatory Capital Buffer and Liquidity: Evidence from US and European Publicly Traded Banks," Working Papers hal-00918468, HAL.
    18. Chen, Hsiao-Jung & Lin, Kuan-Ting, 2016. "How do banks make the trade-offs among risks? The role of corporate governance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(S), pages 39-69.
    19. Sinha, Pankaj & Grover, Naina, 2019. "Estimation of liquidity created by banks in India," MPRA Paper 92563, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Stanhouse, Bryan & Schwarzkopf, Al & Ingram, Matt, 2011. "A computational approach to pricing a bank credit line," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1341-1351, June.
    21. Gupta, Juhi & Kashiramka, Smita, 2020. "Financial stability of banks in India: Does liquidity creation matter?," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Michiel Bijlsma & Wouter Elsenburg & Michiel van Leuvensteijn, 2010. "Four Futures for Finance; A scenario study," CPB Document 211.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    2. Xavier Vives, 2011. "Competition and Stability in Banking," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Luis Felipe Céspedes & Roberto Chang & Diego Saravia (ed.),Monetary Policy under Financial Turbulence, edition 1, volume 16, chapter 12, pages 455-502, Central Bank of Chile.
    3. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2005. "Liquidity Shortages and Banking Crises," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 615-647, April.
    4. David VanHoose, 2006. "Bank Behavior Under Capital Regulation: What Does The Academic Literature Tell Us?," NFI Working Papers 2006-WP-04, Indiana State University, Scott College of Business, Networks Financial Institute.
    5. Henk L. M. Kox, 2013. "Export Decisions of Services Firms Between Agglomeration Effects and Market-Entry Costs," Advances in Spatial Science, in: Juan R. Cuadrado-Roura (ed.), Service Industries and Regions, edition 127, chapter 0, pages 177-201, Springer.
    6. João Santos, 1998. "Commercial Banks in the Securities Business: A Review," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 14(1), pages 35-60, July.
    7. Dwyer Jr., Gerald P. & Samartín, Margarita, 2009. "Why do banks promise to pay par on demand?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-169, June.
    8. Bauer, Wolfgang & Ryser, Marc, 2004. "Risk management strategies for banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 331-352, February.
    9. Muhammad Saifuddin Khan, 2018. "The Role of Liquidity in Financial Intermediation," PhD Thesis, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney, number 1-2018, August.
    10. Díaz, Violeta & Huang, Ying, 2017. "The role of governance on bank liquidity creation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 137-156.
    11. Saoussen Ben Gamra & Dominique Plihon, 2011. "Revenue diversification in emerging market banks: implications for financial performance," CEPN Working Papers hal-00598136, HAL.
    12. Berger, Allen N. & Sedunov, John, 2017. "Bank liquidity creation and real economic output," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 1-19.
    13. Imbierowicz, Björn & Rauch, Christian, 2014. "The relationship between liquidity risk and credit risk in banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 242-256.
    14. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2001. "Liquidity Risk, Liquidity Creation, and Financial Fragility: A Theory of Banking," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(2), pages 287-327, April.
    15. Marinkovic, Srdjan T., 2005. "Designing an incentive-compatible safety net in a financial system in transition: the case of Serbia," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 23375, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    16. Chen, Hsiao-Jung & Lin, Kuan-Ting, 2016. "How do banks make the trade-offs among risks? The role of corporate governance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(S), pages 39-69.
    17. Seba Mohanty & Jitendra Mahakud, 2021. "Causal Nexus Between Liquidity Creation and Bank Capital Ratio: Evidence from India," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 15(2), pages 205-237, May.
    18. Goldstein, Itay & Razin, Assaf, 2015. "Three Branches of Theories of Financial Crises," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 10(2), pages 113-180, 30.
    19. Luc Laeven, 2011. "Banking Crises: A Review," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 3(1), pages 17-40, December.
    20. Beck, Thorsten & Carletti, Elena & Goldstein, Itay, 2016. "Financial Regulation in Europe: Foundations and Challenges," CEPR Discussion Papers 11147, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecl:harjfk:rwp04-022. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ksharus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ksharus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.