IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/fip/fedcwp/9015.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Loan commitments and bank risk exposure

Author

Listed:
  • Robert B. Avery
  • Allen N. Berger

Abstract

Loan commitments increase a bank's risk by obligating it to issue future loans under terms that it might otherwise refuse. However, moral hazard and adverse selection problems potentially may result in these contracts being rationed or sorted. Depending on the relative risks of the borrowers who do and do not receive commitments, commitment loans could be safer or riskier on average than other loans. the empirical results indicate that commitment loans tend to have slightly better than average performance, suggesting that commitments generate little risk or that this risk is offset by the selection of safer borrowers.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert B. Avery & Allen N. Berger, 1990. "Loan commitments and bank risk exposure," Working Papers (Old Series) 9015, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedcwp:9015
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://fraser.stlouisfed.org/scribd/?item_id=494542&filepath=/docs/historical/frbclev/wp/frbclv_wp1990-15.pdf#scribd-open
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Reuven Glick and Steven E. Plaut., 1988. "Money and Off-Balance-Sheet Liquidity: An Empirical Analysis," Research Program in Finance Working Papers 182, University of California at Berkeley.
    2. Melnik, Arie & Plaut, Steven E., 1986. "The economics of loan commitment contracts: Credit pricing and utilization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 267-280, June.
    3. Avery, Robert B. & Berger, Allen N., 1991. "Loan commitments and bank risk exposure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 173-192, February.
    4. Sofianos, George & Wachtel, Paul & Melnik, Arie, 1990. "Loan commitments and monetary policy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 677-689, October.
    5. Ham, John C & Melnik, Arie, 1987. "Loan Demand: An Empirical Analysis Using Micro Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(4), pages 704-709, November.
    6. Thakor, Anjan V. & Udell, Gregory F., 1987. "An economic rationale for the pricing structure of bank loan commitments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 271-289, June.
    7. Boot, Arnoud & Thakor, Anjan V. & Udell, Gregory F., 1987. "Competition, risk neutrality and loan commitments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 449-471, September.
    8. Boot, Arnoud W. A. & Thakor, Anjan V. & Udell, Gregory F., 1991. "Credible commitments, contract enforcement problems and banks: Intermediation as credibility assurance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 605-632, June.
    9. James, Christopher, 1982. "An Analysis of Bank Loan Rate Indexation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 37(3), pages 809-825, June.
    10. Gary D. Koppenhaver, 1987. "The effects of regulation on bank participation in the guarantee market," Staff Memoranda 87-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Martin, J. Spencer & Santomero, Anthony M., 1997. "Investment opportunities and corporate demand for lines of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(10), pages 1331-1350, October.
    2. Sumit Agarwal & Souphala Chomsisengphet & John C. Driscoll, 2004. "Loan commitments and private firms," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-27, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    3. Plaut, Steven E. & Melnik, Arie L., 2003. "International institutional lending arrangements to sovereign borrowers," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 459-481, August.
    4. Qianwei Ying & Danglun Luo & Lifan Wu, 2013. "Bank Credit Lines and Overinvestment: Evidence from China," The International Journal of Business and Finance Research, The Institute for Business and Finance Research, vol. 7(2), pages 43-52.
    5. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
    6. Stanhouse, Bryan & Schwarzkopf, Al & Ingram, Matt, 2011. "A computational approach to pricing a bank credit line," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1341-1351, June.
    7. O. Emre Ergungor, 2000. "Relationship loans and information exploitability in a competitive market: loan commitments vs. spot loans," Working Papers (Old Series) 0013, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
    8. Evan Gatev & Philip E. Strahan, 2003. "Banks' Advantage in Hedging Liquidity Risk: Theory and Evidence from the Commercial Paper Market," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 03-01, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    9. Boot, Arnoud & Thakor, Anjan V. & Udell, Gregory F., 1987. "Competition, risk neutrality and loan commitments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 449-471, September.
    10. Houston, Joel F. & Venkataraman, S., 1996. "Liquidation under moral hazard: Optimal debt maturity and loan commitments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 115-133, January.
    11. Sofianos, George & Wachtel, Paul & Melnik, Arie, 1990. "Loan commitments and monetary policy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 677-689, October.
    12. Mr. Rodolphe Blavy, 2005. "Monitoring and Commitment in Bank Lending Behavior," IMF Working Papers 2005/222, International Monetary Fund.
    13. James R. Booth & Lena Chua, 1995. "Structure and pricing of large bank loans," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 52-62.
    14. Duran, Miguel A. & Lozano-Vivas, Ana, 2013. "Off-balance-sheet activity under adverse selection: The European experience," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 176-190.
    15. Smant, David / D.J.C., 2002. "Bank credit in the transmission of monetary policy: A critical review of the issues and evidence," MPRA Paper 19816, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Lamont K. Black & Richard J. Rosen, 2007. "How the credit channel works: differentiating the bank lending channel and the balance sheet channel," Working Paper Series WP-07-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    17. Chateau, John-Peter D., 2009. "Marking-to-model credit and operational risks of loan commitments: A Basel-2 advanced internal ratings-based approach," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 260-270, December.
    18. Egli, Dominik & Ongena, Steven & Smith, David C., 2006. "On the sequencing of projects, reputation building, and relationship finance," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 23-39, March.
    19. Evan Gatev & Philip E. Strahan, 2003. "Banks' Advantage in Hedging Liquidity Risk: Theory and Evidence from the Commercial Paper Market," NBER Working Papers 9956, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Thakor, Anjan V., 1996. "The design of financial systems: An overview," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 917-948, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bank loans; Risk;

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedcwp:9015. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/frbclus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/frbclus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.