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Loan Commitments and Monetary Policy


  • George Sofianos
  • Arie Melnik
  • Paul Wachtel


The impact of loan commitment agreements on the way in which changes in monetary policy affects the economy is examined. In particular, the empirical relevance of quantity credit rationing in the transmission of monetary policy is studied with VAR models. We find evidence of a differential impact of monetary policy on loans under commitment and not under commitment. Our conclusion is that credit rationing for bank loans does occur, although loan commitments effectively protect borrowers from credit rationing. Thus, loan commitments which insulate borrowers from the effects of quantity rationing force monetary policy to work exclusively through interest rate channels.

Suggested Citation

  • George Sofianos & Arie Melnik & Paul Wachtel, 1987. "Loan Commitments and Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 2232, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:2232
    Note: ME

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    Cited by:

    1. Cowling, Marc, 2010. "The role of loan guarantee schemes in alleviating credit rationing in the UK," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 36-44, April.
    2. Pei-Fen Chen & Jhih-Hong Zeng & Chien-Chiang Lee, 2015. "Monetary Policy and the Diversification–Profitability Linkage in Banking: Evidences from Emerging Market Economies," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 83(4), pages 576-597, December.
    3. Avery, Robert B. & Berger, Allen N., 1991. "Loan commitments and bank risk exposure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 173-192, February.
    4. Diaz-Serrano, Luis & Sackey, Frank Gyimah, 2015. "Is Rationing in the Microfinance Sector Determined by the Microfinance Type? Evidence from Ghana," IZA Discussion Papers 8999, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Liu, Yong-Chin & Chen, Hsiang-Ju, 2012. "Economic conditions, lending competition, and evaluation effect of credit line announcements on borrowers," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 438-458.
    6. Parker, Simon C, 2002. "Do Banks Ration Credit to New Enterprises? And Should Governments Intervene? President's Lecture Delivered at the Annual General Meeting of the Scottish Economic Society 4-5 September 2001," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(2), pages 162-195, May.
    7. Sumit Agarwal & Souphala Chomsisengphet & John C. Driscoll, 2004. "Loan commitments and private firms," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-27, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    8. Perera, Anil & Ralston, Deborah & Wickramanayake, J., 2014. "Impact of off-balance sheet banking on the bank lending channel of monetary transmission: Evidence from South Asia," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 195-216.
    9. Lamont K. Black & Richard J. Rosen, 2016. "Monetary Policy, Loan Maturity, and Credit Availability," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 12(1), pages 199-230, March.
    10. Perez, Stephen J., 1998. "Testing for Credit Rationing: An Application of Disequilibrium Econometrics," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 721-739, October.
    11. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
    12. Martin, J. Spencer & Santomero, Anthony M., 1997. "Investment opportunities and corporate demand for lines of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(10), pages 1331-1350, October.
    13. Mitusch, Kay & Nautz, Dieter, 2001. "Interest rate and liquidity risk management and the European money supply process," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(11), pages 2089-2101, November.
    14. Smant, David / D.J.C., 2002. "Bank credit in the transmission of monetary policy: A critical review of the issues and evidence," MPRA Paper 19816, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Lamont K. Black & Richard J. Rosen, 2007. "How the credit channel works: differentiating the bank lending channel and the balance sheet channel," Working Paper Series WP-07-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    16. Huerta, Daniel & Egly, Peter V. & Escobari, Diego, 2015. "The Liquidity Crisis, Investor Sentiment, and REIT Returns and Volatility," MPRA Paper 68155, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Breitenlechner, Maximilian & Scharler, Johann, 2016. "The Bank Lending Channel and the Market for Banks' Wholesale Funding," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145679, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    18. Díaz Serrano, Lluís & Sackey, Frank G., 2015. "Microfinance and credit rationing in Ghana: Does the microfinance type matter?," Working Papers 2072/247802, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    19. Iris Claus & Arthur Grimes, 2003. "Asymmetric Information, Financial Intermediation and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism: A Critical Review," Treasury Working Paper Series 03/19, New Zealand Treasury.
    20. Paul Bennett, 1990. "The influence of financial changes on interest rates and monetary policy: a review of recent evidence," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Sum, pages 8-30.

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