IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Relationship loans and information exploitability in a competitive market: loan commitments vs. spot loans

  • Ozgur Emre Ergungor
Registered author(s):

    Despite the numerous benefits of loan commitments, only 79% of the commercial and industrial loans are made under commitment. I show that two factors limit the use of loan commitments. First, because banks commit themselves to lend, they carry costly liquidity reserves to meet their obligations. Due to liquidity costs, the interest rate on commitment loans is high relative to spot loans. Second, high interest rates trigger moral hazard. If the bank expects a profitable relationship in the future, it can absorb a portion of the liquidity costs to reduce the interest rate and attenuate moral hazard. If not, the borrower cannot get a loan commitment.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.clevelandfed.org/research/workpaper/2000/Wp0013.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland in its series Working Paper with number 0013.

    as
    in new window

    Length:
    Date of creation: 2000
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:fip:fedcwp:0013
    Contact details of provider: Postal: 1455 East 6th St., Cleveland OH 44114
    Phone: 216.579.2000
    Web page: http://www.clevelandfed.org/

    More information through EDIRC

    Order Information: Email:


    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Stewart C. Myers & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1995. "The Paradox of Liquidity," NBER Working Papers 5143, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Boot, A.W.A. & Thakor, A.V. & Udell, G.F., 1987. "Competition, risk neutrality and loan commitments," Research Memorandum afd7b491-7ac6-41c8-8cae-0, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    3. Steven A. Sharpe, 1989. "Asymmetric information, bank lending, and implicit contracts: a stylized model of customer relationships," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 70, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    4. Longhofer, Stanley D. & Santos, Joao A. C., 2000. "The Importance of Bank Seniority for Relationship Lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 57-89, January.
    5. Maksimovic, Vojislav, 1990. " Product Market Imperfections and Loan Commitments," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(5), pages 1641-53, December.
    6. Berlin, Mitchell & Mester, Loretta J., 1992. "Debt covenants and renegotiation," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 95-133, June.
    7. Stuart I. Greenbaum & Itzhak Venezia, 1985. "Partial Exercise Of Loan Commitments Under Adaptive Pricing," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 8(4), pages 251-263, December.
    8. Boot, Arnoud W A & Greenbaum, Stuart I & Thakor, Anjan V, 1993. "Reputation and Discretion in Financial Contracting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1165-83, December.
    9. Boot, Arnoud W. A. & Thakor, Anjan V., 1991. "Off-balance sheet liabilities, deposit insurance and capital regulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 825-846, September.
    10. Anil K. Kashyap & Raghuram Rajan & Jeremy C. Stein, 1999. "Banks as Liquidity Providers: An Explanation for the Co-Existence of Lending and Deposit-Taking," NBER Working Papers 6962, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1995. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-43, May.
    12. Shockley Richard L., 1995. "Bank Loan Commitments and Corporate Leverage," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 272-301, July.
    13. Greenbaum, Stuart I & Kanatas, George & Venezia, Itzhak, 1991. "Loan Commitments and the Management of Uncertain Credit Demand," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 351-66, December.
    14. Anjan V. Thakor & Hai Hong & Stuart I. Greenbaum, 2004. "Bank Loan Commitments and Interest Rate Volatility," Finance 0411050, EconWPA.
    15. Thakor, Anjan V. & Udell, Gregory F., 1987. "An economic rationale for the pricing structure of bank loan commitments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 271-289, June.
    16. Chan, Yuk-Shee & Thakor, Anjan V, 1987. " Collateral and Competitive Equilibria with Moral Hazard and Private Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 345-63, June.
    17. Besanko, David & Thakor, Anjan V, 1987. "Collateral and Rationing: Sorting Equilibria in Monopolistic and Competitive Credit Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 28(3), pages 671-89, October.
    18. Blackwell, David W & Winters, Drew B, 1997. "Banking Relationships and the Effect of Monitoring on Loan Pricing," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 275-89, Summer.
    19. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    20. Diamond, Douglas W, 1991. "Monitoring and Reputation: The Choice between Bank Loans and Directly Placed Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 689-721, August.
    21. Melnik, Arie & Plaut, Steven E., 1986. "The economics of loan commitment contracts: Credit pricing and utilization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 267-280, June.
    22. Bester, Helmut, 1985. "Screening vs. Rationing in Credit Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 850-55, September.
    23. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. " Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-400, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedcwp:0013. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lee Faulhaber)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.