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Center-Outward Sign- and Rank-Based Quadrant, Spearman, and Kendall Tests for Multivariate Independence

Author

Listed:
  • Marc Hallin
  • Hongjian Shi
  • Mathias Drton
  • Fang Han

Abstract

Defining multivariate generalizations of the classical univariate ranks has been a long-standing open problem in statistics. Optimal transport has been showed to offer a solution by transporting data points to grid approximating a reference measure (Chernozhukov et al. 2017;Hallin, 2017; Hallin et al. 2021a). We take up this new perspective to develop and study multivariate analogues of popular correlations measures including the sign covariance, Kendall's tau and Spearman's rho. Our tests are genuinely distribution-free, hence valid irrespective of the actual (absolutely continuous) distributions of the observations. We present asymptotic distribution theory for these new statistics, providing asymptotic approximations to critical values to be used for testing independence as well as an analysis of power of the resulting tests. Interestingly, we are able to establish a multivariate elliptical Chernoff-Savage property, which guarantees that, under ellipticity, our nonparametric tests of independence when compared to Gaussian procedures enjoy an asymptotic relative efficiency of one or larger. Hence, the nonparametric tests constitute a safe replacement for procedures based on multivariate Gaussianity.

Suggested Citation

  • Marc Hallin & Hongjian Shi & Mathias Drton & Fang Han, 2021. "Center-Outward Sign- and Rank-Based Quadrant, Spearman, and Kendall Tests for Multivariate Independence," Working Papers ECARES 2021-27, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  • Handle: RePEc:eca:wpaper:2013/334590
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Taskinen, Sara & Kankainen, Annaliisa & Oja, Hannu, 2003. "Sign test of independence between two random vectors," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 9-21, March.
    2. Victor Chernozhukov & Alfred Galichon & Marc Hallin & Marc Henry, 2014. "Monge-Kantorovich Depth, Quantiles, Ranks, and Signs," Papers 1412.8434, arXiv.org, revised Sep 2015.
    3. Victor Chernozhukov & Alfred Galichon & Marc Hallin & Marc Henry, 2014. "Monge-Kantorovich Depth, Quantiles, Ranks, and Signs," Papers 1412.8434, arXiv.org, revised Sep 2015.
    4. Bernard Garel & Marc Hallin, 1995. "Local asymptotic normality of multivariate ARMA processes with a linear trend," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer;The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, vol. 47(3), pages 551-579, September.
    5. Marc Hallin, 2017. "On Distribution and Quantile Functions, Ranks and Signs in R_d," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2017-34, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    6. Marc Hallin & Gilles Mordant, 2021. "On the Finite-Sample Performance of Measure Transportation-Based Multivariate Rank Tests," Working Papers ECARES 2021-24, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    7. Marc Hallin & Daniel Hlubinka & Sarka Hudecova, 2020. "Fully Distribution-free Center-outward Rank Tests for Multiple-output Regression and Manova," Working Papers ECARES 2020-32, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    8. Marc Hallin & Davide La Vecchia & Hang Liu, 2020. "Rank-Based Testing for Semiparametric VAR Models: a measure transportation approach," Working Papers ECARES 2020-47, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    9. del Barrio, Eustasio & González-Sanz, Alberto & Hallin, Marc, 2020. "A note on the regularity of optimal-transport-based center-outward distribution and quantile functions," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 180(C).
    10. Taskinen, Sara & Oja, Hannu & Randles, Ronald H., 2005. "Multivariate Nonparametric Tests of Independence," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 100, pages 916-925, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    Keywords

    distribution-freeness; vector independence; rank tests; multivariate ranks;
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