Government Intervention to Prevent Bankruptcy: the Effect of Blind-Bidding Laws on Movie Theaters
In the 1970s motion picture studios increased their use of blind bidding and non-refundable guarantees in an attempt to reduce the risks associated with producing a small number of large budget films. However, theater owners claimed that blind bidding and guarantees shifted risk to them and increased the likelihood of bankruptcy, since they were required to bid for the right to exhibit a movie without seeing it first. In response to the lobbying of theater owners, twenty-four states passed laws between 1978 and 1984 that banned blind bidding, while seven states also banned non-refundable guarantees. This paper provides the first empirical analysis of the conflicting claims made by theater owners and movie studios about the impact of these laws on the survival rates of independent theaters, admission prices, and delays in the release of movies. We find that the laws were not only ineffective in keeping theater owners at risk of bankruptcy from exiting the market; they may have been even detrimental to those theater owners converting theaters to multiplexes at that time.
|Date of creation:||2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||forthcoming in Economic Inquiry|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (302) 831-2565
Fax: (302) 831-6968
Web page: http://www.lerner.udel.edu/departments/economics/department-economics/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Mark Bergen & Daniel Levy & Sourav Ray & Paul Rubin & Benjamin Zeliger, 2004.
"When Little Things Mean a Lot: On the Inefficiency of Item Pricing Laws,"
0404, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).
- Mark Bergen & Daniel Levy & Sourav Ray & Paul H. Rubin & Benjamin Zeliger, 2008. "When Little Things Mean a Lot: On the Inefficiency of Item-Pricing Laws," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(2), pages 209-250, 05.
- Bergen, Mark & Levy, Daniel & Ray, Sourav & Rubin, Paul & Zeliger, Ben, 2006. "When Little Things Mean a Lot: On the Inefficiency of Item Pricing Laws," MPRA Paper 1158, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Mark Bergen & Daniel Levy & Sourav Ray & Paul Rubin & Benjamin Zeliger, 2004. "When Little Things Mean a Lot: On the Inefficiency of Item Pricing Laws," Law and Economics 0405005, EconWPA, revised 02 Jun 2005.
- Mark Bergen & Daniel Levy & Sourav Ray & Paul H. Rubin & Benjamin Zeliger, 2004. "When Little Things Mean a Lot: On the Inefficiency of Item Pricing Laws," Working Papers 2004-06, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
- Toivanen, O. & Waterson, M., 2001.
"Market Structure and Entry: Where's the Beef?,"
The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS)
593, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Elzinga, Kenneth G & Hogarty, Thomas F, 1978. "Utah Pie and the Consequences of Robinson-Patman," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 427-34, October.
- Das Nilotpal & Falaris Evangelos M & Mulligan James G, 2009. "Vintage Effects and the Diffusion of Time-Saving Technological Innovations," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 9(1), pages 1-37, June.
- Mata, Jose & Portugal, Pedro & Guimaraes, Paulo, 1995.
"The survival of new plants: Start-up conditions and post-entry evolution,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 459-481, December.
- Guimaraes, Paulo & Mata, José & Portugal, Pedro, 1995. "The Survival of New Plants: Start-up Conditions and Post-entry Evolution," CEPR Discussion Papers 1203, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Levy, Daniel, et al, 1997.
"The Magnitude of Menu Costs: Direct Evidence from Large U.S. Supermarket Chains,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 112(3), pages 791-825, August.
- Daniel Levy & Mark Bergen & Shantanu Dutta & Robert Venable, 2005. "The Magnitude of Menu Costs: Direct Evidence from Large U.S. Supermarket Chains," Macroeconomics 0505012, EconWPA.
- De Vany, Arthur & Walls, W David, 1996. "Bose-Einstein Dynamics and Adaptive Contracting in the Motion Picture Industry," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(439), pages 1493-1514, November.
- Darren Filson & David Switzer & Portia Besocke, 2005. "At the Movies: The Economics of Exhibition Contracts," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 43(2), pages 354-369, April.
- Robert Forsythe & R. Mark Isaac & Thomas R. Palfrey, 1989.
"Theories and Tests of "Blind Bidding" in Sealed-Bid Auctions,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(2), pages 214-238, Summer.
- Forsythe, Robert & Isaac, R. Mark & Palfrey, Thomas R., 1987. "Theories and Tests of (Blind Bidding) in Sealed Bid Auctions," Working Papers 670, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Ellickson, Paul, 2005. "Does Sutton Apply to Supermarkets?," Working Papers 05-05, Duke University, Department of Economics.
- Paul B. Ellickson, 2007. "Does Sutton apply to supermarkets?," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(1), pages 43-59, 03.
- Dunne, Timothy & Klimek, Shawn D. & Roberts, Mark J., 2005. "Exit from regional manufacturing markets: The role of entrant experience," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(5-6), pages 399-421, June.
- F. Andrew, 2002. "Revenue-Sharing in Movie Exhibition and the Arrival of Sound," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 40(3), pages 380-402, July.
- Arthur De Vany & W. Walls, 1999. "Uncertainty in the Movie Industry: Does Star Power Reduce the Terror of the Box Office?," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 285-318, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dlw:wpaper:12-03.. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Saul Hoffman)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.