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The effect of norms on fertility and its implications for the quantity-quality trade-off in Pakistan

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  • Zainab Iftikhar

    () (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))

Abstract

This study investigates the effect of fertility norms on quantity-quality trade-off in Pakistan. Due to the lack of information on investment in education of children (quality) I make use of indirect inference to assess the effect of norms on quality. I first estimate an auxiliary econometric model that shows a strong positive effect of norms on fertility. Next, I develop a quantity-quality model augmented with the role of fertility norms and childlessness. The structural parameters of the model are identified using the results of the empirical analysis. Quantitative analysis leads to conclusion that the 2/5th of the variation in the quantity between the women with highest and lowest fertility comes from difference in norms while the rest is explained by wage difference. Similarly, 1/5th of the variation in quality between the two type of women is explained by the norms while the rest comes from difference in wage. Less educated women are more responsive to changes in norms in terms of changes in quantity-quality trade-off. Women's response to quantity-quality trade-off due to changes in wages is governed by norms.

Suggested Citation

  • Zainab Iftikhar, 2018. "The effect of norms on fertility and its implications for the quantity-quality trade-off in Pakistan," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2018014, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  • Handle: RePEc:ctl:louvir:2018014
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    File URL: https://sites.uclouvain.be/econ/DP/IRES/2018014.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Michel Beine & Frédéric Docquier & Maurice Schiff, 2013. "International migration, transfer of norms and home country fertility," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1406-1430, November.
    2. Thomas Baudin & David de la Croix & Paula E. Gobbi, 2015. "Fertility and Childlessness in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(6), pages 1852-1882, June.
    3. Thomas Baudin & David de la Croix & Paula E. Gobbi, 2015. "Fertility and Childlessness in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(6), pages 1852-1882, June.
    4. Quynh T. Nguyen & Dhushyanth Raju, 2015. "Private School Participation in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 20(1), pages 1-46, Jan-June.
    5. Maria Melkersson & Dan-Olof Rooth, 2000. "Modeling female fertility using inflated count data models," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(2), pages 189-203.
    6. Baudin, Thomas & de la Croix, David & Gobbi, Paula, 2017. "Endogenous Childlessness and Stages of Development," CEPR Discussion Papers 12071, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. David de la Croix & Clara Delavallade, 2018. "Religions, Fertility, And Growth In Southeast Asia," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 59(2), pages 907-946, May.
    8. Paula Gobbi, 2013. "A model of voluntary childlessness," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(3), pages 963-982, July.
    9. Yeter, Mustafa & Stichnoth, Holger, 2013. "Cultural influences on the fertility behaviour of first- and second-generation immigrants in Germany," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79882, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    10. David de la Croix & Matthias Doepke, 2003. "Inequality and Growth: Why Differential Fertility Matters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(4), pages 1091-1113, September.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Quantum fertility norms; Quantity-quality trade-off; Indirect inference; Zero-inflated poisson;

    JEL classification:

    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • D10 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - General
    • Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification

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