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El diálogo de dos desafíos: evolución y relación de la desigualdad y la escolaridad en Chile

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  • Estéfano rubio

    () (Centro de Estudios Públicos, Santiago)

Abstract

A continuación se presenta un análisis de la relación entre escolaridad y desigualdad en Chile. Se analiza la evolución de la desigualdad de ingresos desde el año 1990 al 2013, período en que el país ha experimentado una caída en el índice de Gini desde 0,56 a 0,52. Este hecho se intenta explicar desde dos enfoques: por un lado se analizan cuáles han sido los factores que han favorecido esta disminución y, por el otro, se estudian posibles causas de por qué estas cifras han permanecido tan elevadas durante los años. En relación a lo primero se incluyen los siguientes factores: leve caída en los retornos a la educación superior, reducción en la dispersión de escolaridad de la población y efectos período favorables. Entre las razones que explican por qué estas cifras continúan siendo elevadas, están: el aumento en el promedio de la escolaridad de la población — sumado a que los retornos de la escolaridad crecen con el nivel educacional—; un elevado retorno de la educación superior (universitaria especialmente); elevada participación del salario en los ingresos totales; y factores de fondo que establecen una estructura social que limita la masificación de la escolaridad en grupos de menos recursos (una baja movilidad educacional intergeneracional sumada a elevados índices de emparejamiento selectivo u homofilia). Por último se simula un escenario contrafactual en el cual no hubiese existido homofilia por parte de los padres de cada individuo; se encuentra que el Gini del ingreso laboral (a nivel de individuos) caería de 0,48 a 0,43, aunque asociado con una reducción de 15% de los salarios promedio.

Suggested Citation

  • Estéfano rubio, 2016. "El diálogo de dos desafíos: evolución y relación de la desigualdad y la escolaridad en Chile," Puntos de Referencia DPP-15, Centro de Estudios Públicos.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpt:wpaper:15
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    File URL: https://www.cepchile.cl/cep/site/artic/20160531/asocfile/20160531114117/dpp_015_mayo2016_erubio.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    emparejamiento selectivo; homogamia; desigualdad; movilidad intergeneracional; efectos edad-cohorte-período;

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion

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