Long Term Changes in Voting Power and Control Structure following the Unification of Dual Class Shares
We follow the evolution of ownership structure in a sample of 80 Israeli companies that unified their dual-class shares in the 1990s, and compare it with a control sample of firms that maintained their dual share structure at least until 2000. Our main findings are as follows. First, controlling shareholders offset the dilution of voting rights they incurred upon unification by: 1) increasing their holdings prior to the unification (ex-ante preparation), and 2) by buying shares afterwards; by the end of the sample period their voting power was only marginally lower than in the control sample. This suggests that marginal voting rights are important to controlling shareholders even beyond the 50% threshold. Second, share unifications were not associated with much change in the identity of controlling shareholders. Third, the proportion of firms affiliated with pyramidal business groups in the sample of unifying firms was lower than in the population of listed firms as a whole and not different from that in the control sample, suggesting that pyramidal ownership structures did not replace dual class shares. Finally, unifying firms did not exhibit a substantial improvement in their performance and valuation in comparison with the control sample. We conclude that the regulatory attempt to enforce one share-one vote yielded, at best, a minor improvement in corporate governance.
|Date of creation:||Apr 2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: 44 - 20 - 7183 8801
Fax: 44 - 20 - 7183 8820
|Order Information:|| Email: |
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bergstrom, Clas & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1990. "Ownership of equity in dual-class firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(2-3), pages 255-269, August.
- Paul A. Gompers & Joy Ishii & Andrew Metrick, 2004. "Incentives vs. Control: An Analysis of U.S. Dual-Class Companies," NBER Working Papers 10240, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- King, Michael R. & Santor, Eric, 2008.
"Family values: Ownership structure, performance and capital structure of Canadian firms,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2423-2432, November.
- Michael R. King & Eric Santor, 2007. "Family Values: Ownership Structure, Performance and Capital Structure of Canadian Firms," Working Papers 07-40, Bank of Canada.
- Lucian Bebchuk & Reinier Kraakman & George Triantis, 1999. "Stock Pyramids, Cross-Ownership, and the Dual Class Equity: The Creation and Agency Costs of Seperating Control from Cash Flow Rights," NBER Working Papers 6951, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Shmuel Hauser, 2004. "The Value of Voting Rights to Majority Shareholders: Evidence from Dual-Class Stock Unifications," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 17(4), pages 1167-1184.
- RAFAEL LaPORTA & FLORENCIO LOPEZ-de-SILANES & ANDREI SHLEIFER & ROBERT W. VISHNY, .
"Legal Determinants of External Finance,","
CRSP working papers
324, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1997. "Legal Determinants of External Finance," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1788, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, . "Legal Determinants of External Finance," Working Paper 19443, Harvard University OpenScholar.
- Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1997. "Legal Determinants of External Finance," NBER Working Papers 5879, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Renée Adams & Daniel Ferreira, 2008. "One Share-One Vote: The Empirical Evidence," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 12(1), pages 51-91.
- Cronqvist, Henrik & Nilsson, Mattias, 2000.
"Agency Costs of Controlling Minority Shareholders,"
SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance
364, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 06 Jun 2000.
- Amoako-Adu, Ben & Smith, Brian F., 2001. "Dual class firms: Capitalization, ownership structure and recapitalization back into single class," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1083-1111, June.
- Tarun Khanna & Yishay Yafeh, 2007. "Business Groups in Emerging Markets: Paragons or Parasites?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 45(2), pages 331-372, June.
- Ingolf Dittmann & Niels Ulbricht, 2008. "Timing and Wealth Effects of German Dual Class Stock Unifications," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 14(1), pages 163-196.
- Nenova, Tatiana, 2003. "The value of corporate voting rights and control: A cross-country analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 325-351, June.
- Burkart, Mike & Lee, Samuel, 2007.
"One Share - One Vote: The Theory,"
SIFR Research Report Series
57, Institute for Financial Research.
- Ronald W. Masulis & Cong Wang & Fei Xie, 2009. "Agency Problems at Dual-Class Companies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(4), pages 1697-1727, 08.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:7287. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.