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Long term changes in voting power and control structure following the unification of dual class shares

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  • Lauterbach, Beni
  • Yafeh, Yishay

Abstract

We study the effects of a regulatory change that induced the unification of most dual class shares in Israel in the 1990s. Specifically, we follow the evolution of ownership structure in a sample of 80 companies that unified their dual-class shares, and compare it with a control sample of firms that maintained their dual share structure at least until 2000. Our main findings are as follows. First, controlling shareholders offset the dilution of voting rights they incurred upon unification by: 1) increasing their holdings prior to the unification (ex-ante preparation), and 2) by buying shares afterwards; by the end of the sample period their voting power was only marginally lower than in the control sample. This offsetting result suggests that marginal voting rights may be important to controlling shareholders even beyond the 50% threshold. Second, share unifications were not associated with much change in the identity of controlling shareholders. Third, the proportion of firms affiliated with pyramidal business groups in the sample of unifying firms was lower than in the population of listed firms as a whole and not different from that in the control sample, suggesting that pyramidal ownership structures did not replace dual class shares. Finally, unifying firms did not exhibit a substantial improvement in their performance and valuation in comparison with the control sample.

Suggested Citation

  • Lauterbach, Beni & Yafeh, Yishay, 2011. "Long term changes in voting power and control structure following the unification of dual class shares," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 215-228, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:17:y:2011:i:2:p:215-228
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Mike Burkart & Samuel Lee, 2008. "One Share - One Vote: the Theory," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 12(1), pages 1-49.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Lauterbach, Beni & Pajuste, Anete, 2015. "The long-term valuation effects of voluntary dual class share unifications," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 171-185.
    2. Claessens, Stijn & Yurtoglu, B. Burcin, 2013. "Corporate governance in emerging markets: A survey," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(C), pages 1-33.
    3. repec:eee:intfin:v:49:y:2017:i:c:p:140-153 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Bigelli, Marco & Mehrotra, Vikas & Rau, P. Raghavendra, 2011. "Why are shareholders not paid to give up their voting privileges? Unique evidence from Italy," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 1619-1635.
    5. Bortolon, Patrícia M. & Câmara Leal, Ricardo P., 2014. "Dual-class unifications and corporate governance in Brazil," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 89-108.
    6. Betzer, André & van den Bongard, Inga & Goergen, Marc, 2017. "Index membership vs. loss of voting power: The unification of dual-class shares," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 140-153.

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