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Agglomeration, Backward and Forward Linkages: Evidence from South Korean Investment in China

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  • Debaere, Peter
  • Lee, Joonhyung
  • Paik, Myungho

Abstract

With a firm-level dataset, we study the location decision of all South Korean multinationals across China's regions between 1992 and 2004, taking into account spatial aspects. Our conditional logit estimates confirm previous studies that stress the agglomeration effects along industry and along national lines in firms' location choice. In particular, South Korean investors target the place where there are more firms irrespective of their nationality and, at the same time, more affiliates from South Korean multinationals. More importantly, we decompose these agglomeration effects into a pure agglomeration effect and an upstream and downstream (backward and forward) linkage effect. We find that the presence of upstream and downstream South Korean affiliates significantly increases the likelihood that a South Korean multinational invests there. At the same time, however, backward and forward linkages with the companies irrespective of their nationality do not seem to matter. As such, our analysis of investors' location choice brings together two perspectives: (backward and forward) linkages and agglomeration along national lines.

Suggested Citation

  • Debaere, Peter & Lee, Joonhyung & Paik, Myungho, 2008. "Agglomeration, Backward and Forward Linkages: Evidence from South Korean Investment in China," CEPR Discussion Papers 7079, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:7079
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    Cited by:

    1. Zheng, Liang & Zhao, Zhong, 2017. "What drives spatial clusters of entrepreneurship in China? Evidence from economic census data," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 229-248.
    2. Hu, Zhining & Zheng, Jianghuai & Wang, Jialing, 2011. "Impact of industrial linkages on firm performance in development zones," MPRA Paper 33127, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Debaere, Peter & Lee, Hongshik & Lee, Joonhyung, 2013. "Language, ethnicity and intrafirm trade," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 244-253.
    4. Evert Meijers & Martijn Burger & Masahisa Fujita & Nobuaki Hamaguchi, 2016. "Supply chain internationalization in East Asia: Inclusiveness and risks," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(1), pages 81-100, March.
    5. Masahisa Fujita & Nobuaki Hamaguchi, 2012. "Japan and economic integration in East Asia: post-disaster scenario," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 48(2), pages 485-500, April.
    6. Alfaro, Laura & Chen, Maggie Xiaoyang, 2014. "The global agglomeration of multinational firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 263-276.
    7. Yamashita, Nobuaki & Matsuura, Toshiyuki & Nakajima, Kentaro, 2014. "Agglomeration effects of inter-firm backward and forward linkages: Evidence from Japanese manufacturing investment in China," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 24-41.
    8. Colin Wren & Jonathan Jones, 2012. "On the Relative Importance of Intermediate and Non-Intermediate Goods for FDI Location: A New Approach," ERSA conference papers ersa12p165, European Regional Science Association.
    9. Jones, Jonathan & Wren, Colin, 2011. "On the relative importance of agglomeration economies in the location of FDI across British regions," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 58526, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    10. PHOLO Alain & TENIKUE Michel & NAFARI Baraka, 2017. "Market Potential, Agglomeration Effects and the Location of French Firms in Africa," LISER Working Paper Series 2017-19, LISER.
    11. Che, Yi & Du, Julan & Lu, Yi & Tao, Zhigang, 2017. "Institutional Difference and FDI Location Choice: Evidence from China," MPRA Paper 77158, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Jonathan Jones & Colin Wren, 2011. "On the Relative Importance of Agglomeration Economies in the Location of FDI Across British Regions," SERC Discussion Papers 0089, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
    13. Been‐Lon Chen & Shun‐Fa Lee, 2012. "Intersectoral Spillovers, Relative Prices and Development Traps," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(2), pages 243-261, May.
    14. repec:elg:eechap:17028_12 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Sunghoon Chung, 2012. "Environmental Regulation and the Pattern of Outward FDI: An Empirical Assessment of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis," Departmental Working Papers 1203, Southern Methodist University, Department of Economics.
    16. Laura Alfaro & Maggie Xiaoyang Chen, 2018. "Transportation cost and the geography of foreign investment," Chapters,in: Handbook of International Trade and Transportation, chapter 12, pages 369-406 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    17. Goldbach, Stefan & Nagengast, Arne J. & Steinmüller, Elias & Wamser, Georg, 2017. "The effect of investing abroad on investment at home: On the role of technology, tax savings, and internal capital markets," Discussion Papers 14/2017, Deutsche Bundesbank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    agglomeration; multinationals;

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade
    • F2 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business

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