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Vertical foreign direct investment: Evidence from Japanese and U.S. multinational enterprises

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  • Tanaka, Kiyoyasu

Abstract

Foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries has increased since the 1990s, but there is mixed evidence of vertical FDI associated with factor-seeking motives. This paper estimates the vertical motive of offshore production by multinational enterprises (MNEs) by exploiting past schooling characteristics as instruments for skilled-labor abundance in a host country. Using panel data on Japanese and U.S. MNEs in the 1990s, I find that skilled-labor abundance has a significantly negative impact on sales of manufacturing foreign affiliate only for Japanese MNEs. The results suggest that vertical FDI activity was more prevalent in Japanese MNEs than U.S. MNEs. A plausible explanation is that Japanese MNEs might be more vertically integrated with their offshore production than U.S. MNEs. A difference in foreign outsourcing activities could generate the observed deviation between Japanese and U.S. MNEs.

Suggested Citation

  • Tanaka, Kiyoyasu, 2011. "Vertical foreign direct investment: Evidence from Japanese and U.S. multinational enterprises," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 97-111, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:japwor:v:23:y:2011:i:2:p:97-111
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    4. Greaney, Theresa M. & Li, Yao, 2009. "Assessing foreign direct investment relationships between China, Japan, and the United States," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 611-625, November.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Multinational firm Vertical FDI Skill endowment Instrumental variable;

    JEL classification:

    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business

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