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The Ties that Divide. A Network Analysis of the International Monetary System

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  • Flandreau, Marc
  • Jobst, Clemens

Abstract

This paper provides a new methodology to map international monetary relations in the 19th century. We identify an index of international liquidity and, applying techniques borrowed from formal network analysis (in particular, blockmodelling) we produce a formal ranking of currencies according to their degree of international circulation. The resulting indices are powerful tools to study the logic of the emergence of international currencies, as well as useful controls for cross-section regressions.

Suggested Citation

  • Flandreau, Marc & Jobst, Clemens, 2005. "The Ties that Divide. A Network Analysis of the International Monetary System," CEPR Discussion Papers 5129, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:5129
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Marc Flandreau & John Komlos, 2005. "Target zones in History and Theory : efficiency, credibility and policy autonomy," Sciences Po publications n°5199, Sciences Po.
    2. Hartmann,Philipp, 2007. "Currency Competition and Foreign Exchange Markets," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521046930, December.
    3. Michael P. Dooley & David Folkerts-Landau & Peter M. Garber, 2005. "An essay on the revived Bretton Woods system," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Feb.
    4. Luis Catão & Solomos Solomou, 2003. "Exchange Rates in the Periphery and International Adjustment Under the Gold Standard," IMF Working Papers 2003/041, International Monetary Fund.
    5. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/324 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Flandreau, Marc & Sussman, Nathan, 2004. "Old Sins: Exchange Rate Clauses and European Foreign Lending in the 19th Century," CEPR Discussion Papers 4248, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Marc Flandreau & Nathan Sussman, 2004. "Old sins. Exchange Clauses and European Foreign Lending in the 19th Century," Sciences Po publications n°4248, Sciences Po.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Mauricio Drelichman & Joachim Voth, 2007. "Lending to the borrower from hell: Debt and default in the age of Philip II, 1556-1598," Economics Working Papers 1164, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Nov 2009.
    2. Marc Flandreau, 2006. "The logic of compromise : monetary bargaining in Austria-Hungary 1867-1913," Working Papers hal-01065619, HAL.
    3. Accominotti, Olivier & Ugolini, Stefano, 2019. "International Trade Finance From the Origins to the Present: Market Structures, Regulation, and Governance," CEPR Discussion Papers 13661, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Marc Flandreau & Christophe Galimard & Clemens Jobst & Pilar Nogués-Marco, 2009. "Monetary geography before the Industrial Revolution," Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, Cambridge Political Economy Society, vol. 2(2), pages 149-171.
    5. Stefano Ugolini, 2011. "Foreign exchange reserve management in the 19th century: The National Bank of Belgium in the 1850s," Working Paper 2011/07, Norges Bank.
    6. Emmanuel Lazega & Saraï Sapulete & Lise Mounier, 2011. "Structural stability regardless of membership turnover? The added value of blockmodelling in the analysis of network evolution," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 129-144, January.
    7. Nogues-Marco, Pilar, 2017. "Money Markets and Exchange Rates in Pre-Industrial Europe," Working Papers unige:100808, University of Geneva, Paul Bairoch Institute of Economic History.
    8. Accominotti, Olivier & Lucena, Delio & Ugolini, Stefano, 2019. "The Origination and Distribution of Money Market Instruments: Sterling Bills of Exchange during the First Globalisation," CEPR Discussion Papers 14058, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Mauricio Drelichman & Hans‐Joachim Voth, 2011. "Lending to the Borrower from Hell: Debt and Default in the Age of Philip II," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(557), pages 1205-1227, December.
    10. Thomas C. Owen, 2013. "Measuring business cycles in the Russian Empire," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 66(3), pages 895-916, August.
    11. Michael D. Bordo & Christopher M. Meissner, 2007. "Financial Crises, 1880-1913: The Role of Foreign Currency Debt," NBER Chapters, in: The Decline of Latin American Economies: Growth, Institutions, and Crises, pages 139-194, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Marc Flandreau, Stefano Ugolini, 2011. "Where It All Began: Lending of Last Resort and the Bank of England during the Overend, Gurney Panic of 1866," IHEID Working Papers 04-2011, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
    13. Prasanna Gai & Gavin Cameron & Kang Yong Tan, 2009. "Sovereign Risk in the Classical Gold Standard Era," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 85(271), pages 401-416, December.
    14. Marc Flandreau & Clemens Jobst, 2006. "The Empirics of International Currencies: Evidence from the 19th Century," Sciences Po publications n°5529, Sciences Po.
    15. Marc Flandreau & Clemens Jobst, 2009. "The Empirics of International Currencies: Network Externalities, History and Persistence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(537), pages 643-664, April.
    16. Barry Eichengreen & Marc Flandreau, 2012. "The Federal Reserve, the Bank of England, and the Rise of the Dollar as an International Currency, 1914–1939," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 57-87, February.
    17. Tunçer, Coşkun, 2012. "Monetary sovereignty during the classical gold standard era: the Ottoman Empire and Europe, 1880-1913," Economic History Working Papers 44725, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
    18. Barry Eichengreen & Marc Flandreau, 2010. "The Federal Reserve, the Bank of England and the rise of the dollar as an international currency, 1914-39," BIS Working Papers 328, Bank for International Settlements.
    19. Marc Flandreau & Stefano Ugolini, 2013. "Where It All Began: Lending of Last Resort and Bank of England Monitoring During the Overend-Gurney Panic of 1866," Post-Print hal-01293916, HAL.
    20. Sarah Cochrane, 2009. "Explaining London's Dominance in International Financial Services, 1870-1913," Economics Series Working Papers 455, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    21. Morys, Matthias, 2013. "Discount rate policy under the Classical Gold Standard: Core versus periphery (1870s–1914)," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 205-226.
    22. Nils Herger, 2016. "Interest parity conditions during the classical gold standard (1880 -1914) - Evidence from the investment demand for bills of exchange in Europe," Discussion Papers 1607, University of Exeter, Department of Economics.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    international monetary system; key currency; networks; pound sterling;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • N32 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - U.S.; Canada: 1913-

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