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Cambio estructural y deterioro laboral: Colombia en la década de los noventa


  • infocede


Este trabajo analiza los efectos que han tenido las reformas estructurales sobre el mercado laboral colombiano. Estas reformas han incidido de forma marcada y desfavorable en la estructura productiva del país. El crecimiento de la economía pasó a estar comandado por los sectores productores de bienes y servicios no comercializables internacionalmente, al tiempo que se produjo un marcado deterioro de los sectores transables, especialmente la agricultura y la industria. Las repercusiones de estos cambios en el mercado laboral han sido significativos. La conclusión más importante es que la capacidad de la economía para generar empleo se deterioró notablemente. Los cambios en la estructura productiva han golpeado, a los trabajadores menos educados, ya que la eliminación de empleo en los sectores transables afectó más a estos trabajadores, en tanto que el aumento de empleo en los sectores no transables tendió a favorecer a trabajadores con mayores niveles educativos. Por otra parte, el cambio productivo ha sido intensivo en capital y ahorrador de mano de obra de todos los niveles educativos, aunque con mayor incidencia en la mano de obra de menor calificación. Los sesgos generados por la apertura económica hacia la demanda de mano de obra más educada se reflejan también en la mayor rentabilidad de la educación para los niveles de escolaridad más altos y en el incremento de los ingresos relativos de estos trabajadores, que ha presionado adversamente la distribución urbana de ingresos.

Suggested Citation

  • infocede, 2000. "Cambio estructural y deterioro laboral: Colombia en la década de los noventa," Documentos CEDE 20091, Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Economía, CEDE.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000089:020091

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bentolila, Samuel & Saint-Paul, Gilles, 1992. "The macroeconomic impact of flexible labor contracts, with an application to Spain," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 1013-1047, June.
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