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Different tourists to different destinations. Evidence from spatial interaction models

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  • E. Marrocu

    ()

  • R. Paci

    ()

Abstract

As tourism is becoming one of the most important sources of economic growth at the local level, it is imperative to identify and assess the relevant determinants of tourism flows. This paper investigates this issue by carrying out an econometric analysis based on the origin-destination (OD) spatial interaction models, which fully account for the spatial dependence generally featured by tourism flows. We contribute to the current debate by analyzing the tourism flows for the complete set of 107 Italian provinces (11449 OD flows) in terms of 2009 arrivals. Besides geographical distance, the explanatory variables include both pull and push locations' characteristics to assess their relative role in determining the distinctive traits of emissiveness and attractiveness for all the provinces. We thus consider income, density, accessibility (low-cost flights, transport infrastructure), a set of cultural (museums) and natural (park areas, coasts, well-preserved beaches) factors and other amenities (renowned restaurants). The main results point out that there is a great deal of spatial correlation induced by neighboring provinces at both origin and destination, which is systematically overlooked if one relies only on the gravity specification. Once one controls for such a complex kind of dependence, most of the explanatory variables exhibit the expected effect, with distance and population density showing a negative impact on tourists' decisions when choosing a specific destination, while amenities, accessibility and income turn out to be effective determinants of tourism flows.

Suggested Citation

  • E. Marrocu & R. Paci, 2012. "Different tourists to different destinations. Evidence from spatial interaction models," Working Paper CRENoS 201210, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
  • Handle: RePEc:cns:cnscwp:201210
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kelejian, Harry H & Prucha, Ingmar R, 1999. "A Generalized Moments Estimator for the Autoregressive Parameter in a Spatial Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(2), pages 509-533, May.
    2. Tamara de la Mata & Carlos Llano-Verduras, 2012. "Spatial pattern and domestic tourism: An econometric analysis using inter-regional monetary flows by type of journey," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 91(2), pages 437-470, June.
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    6. Dionysia Lambiri & Bianca Biagi & Vicente Royuela, 2007. "Quality of Life in the Economic and Urban Economic Literature," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 84(1), pages 1-25, October.
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    8. Brau, Rinaldo, 2008. "Demand-driven sustainable tourism? A choice modelling analysis," MPRA Paper 82773, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Luc Anselin, 2010. "Thirty years of spatial econometrics," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 89(1), pages 3-25, March.
    10. Deng, Minfeng & Athanasopoulos, George, 2011. "Modelling Australian domestic and international inbound travel: a spatial–temporal approach," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 1075-1084.
    11. D A Griffith & K G Jones, 1980. "Explorations into the relationship between spatial structure and spatial interaction," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 12(2), pages 187-201, February.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Galli, Paolo & Fraga, Carla & de Sequeira Santos, Marcio Peixoto, 2016. "Gravitational force exerted by Brazilian tourist destinations on foreign air travelers," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 76-83.
    2. Morley, Clive & RossellĂł, Jaume & Santana-Gallego, Maria, 2014. "Gravity models for tourism demand: theory and use," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 1-10.
    3. repec:eee:touman:v:50:y:2015:i:c:p:159-171 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:eee:touman:v:57:y:2016:i:c:p:334-361 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Zhang, Hai-Ying & Ji, Qiang & Fan, Ying, 2015. "What drives the formation of global oil trade patterns?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 639-648.
    6. repec:eee:touman:v:45:y:2014:i:c:p:226-233 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Gianluca Cafiso & Roberto Cellini & Tiziana Cuccia, 2015. "Do Economic Crises Lead Tourists to Closer Destinations? An Analysis of Italy's Regional Data," CESifo Working Paper Series 5250, CESifo Group Munich.
    8. repec:eee:touman:v:61:y:2017:i:c:p:82-95 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    tourism flows; spatial origin-destination interaction models; product differentiation; amenities; italy;

    JEL classification:

    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • Q26 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis

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