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The Spline GARCH Model for Unconditional Volatility and its Global Macroeconomic Causes

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  • Robert F. Engle
  • Jose Gonzalo Rangel

Abstract

25 years of volatility research has left the macroeconomic environment playing a minor role. This paper proposes modeling equity volatilities as a combination of macroeconomic effects and time series dynamics. High frequency return volatility is specified to be the product of a slow moving deterministic component, represented by an exponential spline, and a unit GARCH. This deterministic component is the unconditional volatility, which is then estimated for nearly 50 countries over various sample periods of daily data. Unconditional volatility is then modeled as an unbalanced panel with a variety of dependence structures. It is found to vary over time and across countries with high unconditional volatility resulting from high volatility in the macroeconomic factors GDP, inflation and short term interest rate, and with high inflation and slow growth of output. Volatility is higher for emerging markets and for markets with small numbers of listed companies and market capitalization, but also for large economies. The model allows long horizon forecasts of volatility to depend on macroeconomic developments, and delivers estimates of the volatility to be anticipated in a newly opened market.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert F. Engle & Jose Gonzalo Rangel, 2005. "The Spline GARCH Model for Unconditional Volatility and its Global Macroeconomic Causes," Working Papers 2005/13, Czech National Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:cnb:wpaper:2005/13
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    File URL: http://www.cnb.cz/en/research/research_publications/cnb_wp/download/cnbwp_2005_13.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Pramod Kumar, Naik & Puja, Padhi, 2012. "The impact of Macroeconomic Fundamentals on Stock Prices revisited: An Evidence from Indian Data," MPRA Paper 38980, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Chun Liu & John M. Maheu, 2008. "Are There Structural Breaks in Realized Volatility?," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 6(3), pages 326-360, Summer.
    3. Zhijie Xiao & Luiz Renato Lima, 2007. "Testing Covariance Stationarity," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(6), pages 643-667.
    4. Bauwens Luc & Storti Giuseppe, 2009. "A Component GARCH Model with Time Varying Weights," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 13(2), pages 1-33, May.
    5. Broto, Carmen & Díaz-Cassou, Javier & Erce, Aitor, 2011. "Measuring and explaining the volatility of capital flows to emerging countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 1941-1953, August.
    6. Tobias Adrian & Joshua Rosenberg, 2008. "Stock Returns and Volatility: Pricing the Short-Run and Long-Run Components of Market Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(6), pages 2997-3030, December.
    7. J. Doyne Farmer & John Geanakoplos, 2008. "The Virtues and Vices of Equilibrium and the Future of Financial Economics," Levine's Working Paper Archive 122247000000002067, David K. Levine.
    8. Qin Xiao & Weihong Huang, 2010. "Risk and predictability of Singapore's private residential market," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(5), pages 529-543.
    9. Andersen, Torben G. & Bollerslev, Tim & Christoffersen, Peter F. & Diebold, Francis X., 2013. "Financial Risk Measurement for Financial Risk Management," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, Elsevier.
    10. Christian Conrad & Karin Loch, 2015. "Anticipating Long‐Term Stock Market Volatility," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(7), pages 1090-1114, November.
    11. Francesco Audrino & Peter Bühlmann, 2009. "Splines for financial volatility," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 71(3), pages 655-670.
    12. Barunik, Jozef & Krehlik, Tomas, 2016. "Measuring the frequency dynamics of financial and macroeconomic connectedness," FinMaP-Working Papers 54, Collaborative EU Project FinMaP - Financial Distortions and Macroeconomic Performance: Expectations, Constraints and Interaction of Agents.
    13. Baele, Lieven & Inghelbrecht, Koen, 2009. "Time-varying Integration and International diversification strategies," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 368-387, June.
    14. Baillie, Richard T. & Morana, Claudio, 2009. "Modelling long memory and structural breaks in conditional variances: An adaptive FIGARCH approach," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1577-1592, August.
    15. Colacito, Riccardo & Engle, Robert F. & Ghysels, Eric, 2011. "A component model for dynamic correlations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 164(1), pages 45-59, September.
    16. Francis X. Diebold & Kamil Yılmaz, 2007. "Macroeconomic Volatility and Stock Market Volatility,World-Wide," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 0711, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
    17. Cristina Amado & Timo Teräsvirta, 2008. "Modelling Conditional and Unconditional Heteroskedasticity with Smoothly Time-Varying Structure," NIPE Working Papers 03/2008, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
    18. Xu, Ke-Li & Phillips, Peter C.B., 2008. "Adaptive estimation of autoregressive models with time-varying variances," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 142(1), pages 265-280, January.
    19. Jozef Barunik & Tomas Krehlik, 2015. "Measuring the frequency dynamics of financial connectedness and systemic risk," Papers 1507.01729, arXiv.org, revised Dec 2017.
    20. Jean-Philippe Bouchaud & J. Doyne Farmer & Fabrizio Lillo, 2008. "How markets slowly digest changes in supply and demand," Papers 0809.0822, arXiv.org.
    21. Genaro, SUCARRAT, 2006. "The First Stage in Hendry’s Reduction Theory Revisited," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2006041, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
    22. Ralf Becker & Adam Clements, 2007. "Forecasting stock market volatility conditional on macroeconomic conditions," NCER Working Paper Series 18, National Centre for Econometric Research.
    23. Shehu Usman Rano Aliyu, 2012. "Does inflation have an impact on stock returns and volatility? Evidence from Nigeria and Ghana," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(6), pages 427-435, March.
    24. Conrad, Christian & Loch, Karin & Rittler, Daniel, 2012. "On the Macroeconomic Determinants of the Long-Term Oil-Stock Correlation," Working Papers 0525, University of Heidelberg, Department of Economics.
    25. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Sharma, Susan Sunila, 2014. "Firm return volatility and economic gains: The role of oil prices," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 142-151.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    . Arch; garch; global volatility; spline and volatility.;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C19 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Other

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