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A Note on Leverage and the Macroeconomy

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  • Khandokar Istiak

    (University of Calgary)

  • Apostolos Serletis

    (University of Calgary)

Abstract

In this paper we investigate the relationship between leverage and the level of economic activity in the United States, using quarterly data over the period 1951–2012. We address the question for five different measures of leverage—household leverage, nonfinancial firm leverage, commercial bank leverage, broker–dealer leverage, and shadow bank leverage—making a distinction between traditional banks and shadow banks, the latter being a consequence of financial innovation and deregulation in the financial services industry over the past 30 years. We investigate whether the relationship between leverage and the level of economic activity is nonlinear and asymmetric using slope-based tests as well as tests of the null hypothesis of symmetric impulse responses. Our results inform policymakers about the important distinction between traditional banks and the market-based financial intermediaries that have been at the center of the global financial crisis of 2007–2009. They also inform about the macroeconomic effects of the deleveraging process that began in 2008, as well as about the need for countercyclical macroprudential policies to reduce the procyclicality of the financial system.
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Suggested Citation

  • Khandokar Istiak & Apostolos Serletis, "undated". "A Note on Leverage and the Macroeconomy," Working Papers 2014-45, Department of Economics, University of Calgary, revised 01 Apr 2014.
  • Handle: RePEc:clg:wpaper:2014-45
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    File URL: https://econ.ucalgary.ca/sites/econ.ucalgary.ca.manageprofile/files/unitis/publications/1-4974637/IstiakSerletisMar14.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hamilton, James D., 1996. "This is what happened to the oil price-macroeconomy relationship," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 215-220, October.
    2. Serletis, Apostolos, 2016. "Introduction To Macroeconomic Dynamics Special Issue On Complexity In Economic Systems," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(2), pages 461-465, March.
    3. Belongia, Michael T. & Ireland, Peter N., 2014. "The Barnett critique after three decades: A New Keynesian analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 183(1), pages 5-21.
    4. Hamilton, James D., 2003. "What is an oil shock?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 113(2), pages 363-398, April.
    5. Apostolos Serletis & Khandokar Istiak & Periklis Gogas, 2013. "Interest Rates, Leverage, and Money," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 51-78, February.
    6. Apostolos Serletis & Periklis Gogas, 2014. "Divisia Monetary Aggregates, the Great Ratios, and Classical Money Demand Functions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 46(1), pages 229-241, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Silvia Bressan, 0. "A Short Note on the Funding of Investment Firms Across the Crisis: Did the Turmoil Bring Changes?," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 0, pages 3.
    2. Silvia Bressan, 2017. "A Short Note on the Funding of Investment Firms Across the Crisis: Did the Turmoil Bring Changes?," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 7(1), pages 1-3.
    3. Apostolos Serletis & Khandokar Istiak, 2018. "Broker-dealer Leverage and the Stock Market," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 29(2), pages 215-222, April.
    4. Alam, Md Rafayet & Istiak, Khandokar, 2020. "Impact of US policy uncertainty on Mexico: Evidence from linear and nonlinear tests," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 355-366.
    5. Istiak, Khandokar, 2019. "The nature of shadow bank leverage shocks on the macroeconomy," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C).
    6. Philippas, Dionisis & Papadamou, Stephanos & Tomuleasa, Iuliana, 2019. "The role of leverage in quantitative easing decisions: Evidence from the UK," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 308-324.
    7. Serletis, Apostolos & Istiak, Khandokar, 2017. "Financial intermediary leverage spillovers," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PB), pages 1000-1007.
    8. Serletis, Apostolos & Xu, Libo, 2019. "The demand for banking and shadow banking services," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 132-146.

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