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Qualifications et immigration : réforme de la grille d'admission du Québec et composition de la population d'immigrants s'établissant au Québec

  • Daniel Parent
  • Christopher Worswick

Using landing records data on all immigrants who have landed in Canada since 1980, this paper examines the extent to which the relative change in the weighting and in the composition of the evaluation grid in Quebec in 1996 has improved the relative skill level of the immigrants settling in Quebec compared to the rest of Canada. We find little evidence that such is the case. However, we do find that the immigrants' knowledge of French has improved in relative terms, although this upward trend in the knowledge of French was already present before the policy change. We are led to conclude that Quebec faces a serious supply problem by favouring applicants who are both skilled and francophones, given that the pool of potential applicants satisfying those two requirements is shrinking. One potential solution to this problem would be to put greater emphasis on the recruitment and retention of students coming from abroad. L'objectif de cette étude est de faire le point sur le degré de qualification des nouveaux immigrants lorsqu'ils arrivent au Canada. Plus particulièrement, nous voulons examiner dans quelle mesure les changements dans la pondération ainsi que dans la composition de la grille d'évaluation des immigrants effectués par le Québec en 1996 (alors que la politique fédérale en vigueur dans les autres provinces a subi un changement plus graduel au cours des années 90) a induit un changement relatif dans le degré de qualification moyen des nouveaux arrivants au Québec après le passage de la réforme. Pour ce faire, nous utilisons des données composées des fichiers compilés à l'arrivée, et ce pour tous les immigrants admis. Bien que la nouvelle grille mettait davantage l'accent sur le niveau de scolarité ainsi que la connaissance du français, nous ne trouvons aucune indication à l'effet que la mise en ?uvre de la nouvelle politique ait eu un impact significatif. En d'autres termes, le niveau de scolarité des immigrants appartenant à la classe des travailleurs autonomes (accompagnés ou non) s'étant établis au Québec au cours des dernières années ne s'est pas accru plus que celui des immigrants ayant élu domicile ailleurs au Canada. La seule caractéristique des nouveaux arrivants au Québec qui ait vraiment changé au cours des dernières années est leur connaissance du français et cette tendance à la hausse était déjà présente avant l'adoption de la nouvelle grille. Ces constatations nous amènent à conclure que le Québec, en cherchant à privilégier les requérants qui sont à la fois qualifiés et francophones, fait davantage face à un important problème d'offre de tels candidats. Nous suggérons que le Québec, pour atteindre ses objectifs d'attirer ici des requérants qualifiés, entre autes, ayant des attributs désirables tels que la connaissance du français, pourrait mettre l'accent sur le recrutement et la rétention d'étudiants en provenance de l'étranger.

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Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Project Reports with number 2004rp-08.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: 01 Jun 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cir:cirpro:2004rp-08
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  1. Ashenfelter, Orley & Krueger, Alan B, 1994. "Estimates of the Economic Returns to Schooling from a New Sample of Twins," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1157-73, December.
  2. Daniel Parent & Ling Wang, 2002. "Tax Incentives and Fertility in Canada: Permanent vs. Transitory Effects," CIRANO Working Papers 2002s-29, CIRANO.
  3. Kevin Milligan, 2002. "Subsidizing the Stork: New Evidence on Tax Incentives and Fertility," NBER Working Papers 8845, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Baker, Michael & Benjamin, Dwayne, 1994. "The Performance of Immigrants in the Canadian Labor Market," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(3), pages 369-405, July.
  5. Edith Duclos & Pierre Lefebvre & Philip Merrigan, 2001. "A 'Natural Experiment' on the Economics of Storks: Evidence on the Impact of Differential Family Policy on Fertility Rates in Canada," Cahiers de recherche CREFE / CREFE Working Papers 136, CREFE, Université du Québec à Montréal.
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