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Let the Voters Choose Women

Author

Listed:
  • Audinga Baltrunaite
  • Alessandra Casarico
  • Paola Profeta
  • Giulia Savio

Abstract

We study the effectiveness of a novel measure to reduce gender gaps in political empowerment: double preference voting conditioned on gender, coupled with gender quotas on candidate lists. This policy was introduced in 2013 in Italian local elections. Using a regression discontinuity design, we find that the share of female councilors rises by 18 percentage points. The result is mainly driven by an increase in preference votes cast for female candidates. We also find evidence of changes in the expenditure allocation in municipalities subject to the policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Audinga Baltrunaite & Alessandra Casarico & Paola Profeta & Giulia Savio, 2016. "Let the Voters Choose Women," CESifo Working Paper Series 5693, CESifo.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_5693
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    13. Folke, Olle & Persson, Torsten & Rickne, Johanna, 2016. "The Primary Effect: Preference Votes and Political Promotions," American Political Science Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 110(3), pages 559-578, August.
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    15. Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004. "Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(5), pages 1409-1443, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Anna Laura Baraldi & Giovanni Immordino & Marco Stimolo, 2020. "Mafia Wears Out Women in Power: Evidence from Italian Municipalities," CSEF Working Papers 586, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    2. Gonzalez-Eiras, Martín & Sanz, Carlos, 2021. "Women’s representation in politics: The effect of electoral systems," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 198(C).
    3. Bagues, Manuel & Campa, Pamela, 2021. "Can gender quotas in candidate lists empower women? Evidence from a regression discontinuity design," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 194(C).
    4. Broockman, David E. & Soltas, Evan J., 2020. "A natural experiment on discrimination in elections," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 188(C).
    5. Le Barbanchon, Thomas & Sauvagnat, Julien, 2018. "Voter Bias and Women in Politics," CEPR Discussion Papers 13238, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Grant, Iris & Kesternich, Iris & Steckenleiter, Carina & Winter, Joachim, 2018. "Historic sex-ratio imbalances predict female participation in the market for politicians," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 144-165.
    7. Maria Rosaria Alfano & Anna Laura Baraldi & Erasmo Papagni, 2020. "Do Voters Choose Better Politicians than Political Parties? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Italy," Working Papers 2020.24, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    8. Raphael Bruce & Alexsandros Cavgias, Luis Meloni, Mario Remigio, 2021. "Under Pressure: Women's Leadership During the COVID-19 Crisis," Working Papers, Department of Economics 2021_19, University of São Paulo (FEA-USP).
    9. Hessami, Zohal & da Fonseca, Mariana Lopes, 2020. "Female political representation and substantive effects on policies: A literature review," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C).
    10. Alessandra Casarico & Paola Profeta, 2020. "Introduction Special Issue “On Gender Perspectives in Public Economics”," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 235(4), pages 3-10, December.
    11. Paola Profeta & Eleanor Woodhouse, 2018. "Do Electoral Rules Matter for Female Representation?," CESifo Working Paper Series 7101, CESifo.
    12. Bozzano, Monica, 2017. "On the historical roots of women's empowerment across Italian provinces: religion or family culture?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 24-46.
    13. Alpino, Matteo & Asatryan, Zareh & Blesse, Sebastian & Wehrhöfer, Nils, 2020. "Austerity and distributional policy," ZEW Discussion Papers 20-028, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    14. repec:ces:ifodic:v:15:y:2017:i:2:p:19337559 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Lassébie, Julie, 2020. "Gender quotas and the selection of local politicians: Evidence from French municipal elections," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    16. Thushyanthan Baskaran & Zohal Hessami, 2019. "Competitively Elected Women as Policy Makers," CESifo Working Paper Series 8005, CESifo.
    17. Giuseppe Albanese & Guglielmo Barone & Guido DeBlasio, 2021. "The impact of place-based policies on income distribution," Discussion Paper series in Regional Science & Economic Geography 2021-04, Gran Sasso Science Institute, Social Sciences, revised Mar 2021.
    18. Paola Profeta, 2017. "Gender Quotas and Efficiency," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 15(02), pages 26-30, August.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender quotas; preference votes; municipal elections; regression discontinuity; local public expenditure;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
    • J45 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Public Sector Labor Markets

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