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Per-Capital Income as a Determinant of International Trade and Environment Policies

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  • James R. Markusen

Abstract

International trade policy analysis has tended to focus on the production side of general equilibrium, with policies such as a tariff or carbon tax affecting international and internal income distributions through a Heckscher-Ohlin nexus of factor intensities and factor endowments. Here I move away from this structure to focus on demand, preferences, and endogenous policies set in a cooperative or non-cooperative manner. The specific context I choose is an international environmental externality such as carbon emissions, and I assume a high income elasticity of demand for environmental quality. I analyze how per-capita income levels of and differences between two countries affect their abatement efforts in a non-cooperative policy-setting game. This outcome can then be used as a disagreement point to analyze cooperative Nash bargaining. In both outcomes, the poor country makes a lower abatement effort in equilibrium; indeed, it may make none at all and cooperative bargaining with only abatement levels as an instrument may offer no gains. Other features include a novel terms-of-trade externality in which an abating country passes on a part of its abatement cost to its trading partner, in which case the non-cooperative and cooperative outcomes are identical under special symmetry assumptions. When per-capita income differences are large, the poor country may be worse off when the rich country abates. Finally, I examine “issue linking” in international bargaining, in which one country is both large and rich, and hence has both a high tariff and a high abatement effort in a non-cooperative equilibrium.

Suggested Citation

  • James R. Markusen, 2014. "Per-Capital Income as a Determinant of International Trade and Environment Policies," CESifo Working Paper Series 4618, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_4618
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    File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/DocDL/cesifo1_wp4618.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Uday Rajan, 1995. "Refutable Implications of the Heckscher-Ohlin Model," International Trade 9502001, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    trade and environment; per-capita income; environmental policy;

    JEL classification:

    • F00 - International Economics - - General - - - General
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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