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Carve-Outs under Airline Antitrust Immunity

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  • Jan K. Brueckner
  • Stef Proost

Abstract

This paper offers the first formal economic analysis of carve-outs under airline antitrust im- munity. Carve-outs are designed to limit the potential anticompetitive effects of cooperation by alliance partners in hub-to-hub markets, where they provide overlapping nonstop service. While the paper shows that carve-outs are beneficial when the alliance does not involve full integration of the partners’ operations on the hub-to-hub route, its key point is that a carve-out may be harmful when imposed on a joint-venture alliance. A JV alliance involves full exploitation of economies of traffic density on the hub-to-hub route, and a carve-out prevents the realization of these benefits. While a carve-out may limit anticompetitive incentives on the hub-to-hub route, welfare may be reduced if the resulting gains are overshadowed by the efficiency loss generated by the carve-out.

Suggested Citation

  • Jan K. Brueckner & Stef Proost, 2009. "Carve-Outs under Airline Antitrust Immunity," CESifo Working Paper Series 2848, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2848
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    File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/DocDL/cesifo1_wp2848.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Zhang, Anming & Czerny, Achim I., 2012. "Airports and airlines economics and policy: An interpretive review of recent research," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 15-34.
    2. Brueckner Jan K. & Picard Pierre M., 2013. "Airline Alliances, Carve-Outs and Collusion," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 12(2), pages 211-227, June.
    3. Gayle, Philip G. & Brown, Dave, 2014. "Airline strategic alliances in overlapping markets: Should policymakers be concerned?," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 243-256.
    4. Alderighi, Marco & Gaggero, Alberto A., 2014. "The effects of global alliances on international flight frequencies: Some evidence from Italy," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 30-33.
    5. Hattori Keisuke & Lin Ming-Hsin, 2011. "Alliance Partner Choice in Markets with Vertical and Horizontal Externalities," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-27, June.
    6. Adler, Nicole & Hanany, Eran, 2016. "Regulating inter-firm agreements: The case of airline codesharing in parallel networks," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 31-54.
    7. Gayle, Philip G. & Thomas, Tyson, 2016. "Assessing firm behavior in carve-out markets: Evidence on the impact of carve-out policy," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 178-194.
    8. Volodymyr Bilotkach & Kai Hüschelrath, 2013. "Airline Alliances, Antitrust Immunity, and Market Foreclosure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(4), pages 1368-1385, October.
    9. Bilotkach, Volodymyr & Fageda, Xavier & Flores-Fillol, Ricardo, 2013. "Airline consolidation and the distribution of traffic between primary and secondary hubs," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(6), pages 951-963.
    10. Stephen Martin, 2012. "Market Structure and Market Performance," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 40(2), pages 87-108, March.
    11. Achim I. Czerny & Peter-J. Jost & Benny Mantin, 2010. "Pricing in Overlapping Transport Networks," WHU Working Paper Series - Economics Group 10-05, WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management.
    12. Adler, Nicole & Mantin, Benny, 2015. "Government and company contracts: The effect on service and prices in international airline markets," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 166-177.
    13. Kai Hüschelrath & Kathrin Müller, 2015. "Market Power, Efficiencies, and Entry Evidence from an Airline Merger," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 36(4), pages 239-255, June.
    14. Lin, Ming Hsin & Mantin, Benny, 2015. "Airport privatization in international inter-hub and spoke networks," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 189-199.
    15. Benoot, W. & Brueckner, J.K. & Proost, S., 2013. "Intercontinental-airport regulation," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 56-72.
    16. Mantin, Benny, 2012. "Airport complementarity: Private vs. government ownership and welfare gravitation," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 381-388.
    17. Jolian McHardy & Michael Reynolds & Stephen Trotter, 2012. "On the problem of network monopoly," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 73(2), pages 223-248, August.
    18. Xia, Wenyi & Zhang, Anming, 2016. "High-speed rail and air transport competition and cooperation: A vertical differentiation approach," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 456-481.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    carve-out; alliance; antitrust immunity; airlines;

    JEL classification:

    • L40 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - General

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