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Carve-Outs under Airline Antitrust Immunity

  • Jan K. Brueckner
  • Stef Proost

This paper offers the first formal economic analysis of carve-outs under airline antitrust im- munity. Carve-outs are designed to limit the potential anticompetitive effects of cooperation by alliance partners in hub-to-hub markets, where they provide overlapping nonstop service. While the paper shows that carve-outs are beneficial when the alliance does not involve full integration of the partners’ operations on the hub-to-hub route, its key point is that a carve-out may be harmful when imposed on a joint-venture alliance. A JV alliance involves full exploitation of economies of traffic density on the hub-to-hub route, and a carve-out prevents the realization of these benefits. While a carve-out may limit anticompetitive incentives on the hub-to-hub route, welfare may be reduced if the resulting gains are overshadowed by the efficiency loss generated by the carve-out.

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File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/DocBase_Content/WP/WP-CESifo_Working_Papers/wp-cesifo-2009/wp-cesifo-2009-11/cesifo1_wp2848.pdf
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Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 2848.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2848
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  1. De Borger, B. & Dunkerley, F. & Proost, S., 2007. "Strategic investment and pricing decisions in a congested transport corridor," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 294-316, September.
  2. DE BORGER, Bruno & PROOST, Stef & VAN DENDER, Kurt, 2007. "Private port pricing and public investment in port and hinterland capacity," Working Papers 2007019, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
  3. Gustavo E. Bamberger & Dennis W. Carlton & Lynette R. Neumann, 2001. "An Empirical Investigation of the Competitive Effects of Domestic Airline Alliances," NBER Working Papers 8197, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Volodymyr Bilotkach, 2005. "Price Competition between International Airline Alliances," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, London School of Economics and University of Bath, vol. 39(2), pages 167-190, May.
  5. Brueckner, Jan K., 2001. "The economics of international codesharing: an analysis of airline alliances," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(10), pages 1475-1498, December.
  6. Ricardo Flores-Fillol & Rafael Moner-Colonques, 2007. "Strategic Formation of Airline Alliances," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, London School of Economics and University of Bath, vol. 41(3), pages 427-449, September.
  7. Barla, Philippe & Constantatos, Christos, 2005. "On the Choice between Strategic Alliance and Merger in the Airline Sector: the Role of Strategic Effects," Cahiers de recherche 0502, GREEN.
  8. Philip G. Gayle, 2007. "Airline Code-Share Alliances and Their Competitive Effects," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50, pages 781-819.
  9. Jan K. Brueckner, 2003. "International Airfares in the Age of Alliances: The Effects of Codesharing and Antitrust Immunity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(1), pages 105-118, February.
  10. W. Whalen, 2007. "A panel data analysis of code-sharing, antitrust immunity, and open skies treaties in international aviation markets," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 39-61, February.
  11. Volodymyr Bilotkach, 2007. "Airline Partnerships and Schedule Coordination," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, London School of Economics and University of Bath, vol. 41(3), pages 413-425, September.
  12. Brueckner, Jan K & Whalen, W Tom, 2000. "The Price Effects of International Airline Alliances," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(2), pages 503-45, October.
  13. Park, Jong-Hun & Zhang, Anming & Zhang, Yimin, 2001. "Analytical models of international alliances in the airline industry," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 865-886, November.
  14. Jong-Hun Park & Anming Zhang, 2000. "An Empirical Analysis of Global Airline Alliances: Cases in North Atlantic Markets," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 367-384, June.
  15. Oum, Tae Hoon & Yu, Chunyan & Zhang, Anming, 2001. "Global airline alliances: international regulatory issues," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 57-62.
  16. Chen, Yongmin & Gayle, Philip G., 2007. "Vertical contracting between airlines: An equilibrium analysis of codeshare alliances," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 1046-1060, October.
  17. Park, Jong-Hun, 1997. "The effects of airline alliances on markets and economic welfare," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 181-195, September.
  18. Philip G. Gayle, 2008. "An Empirical Analysis of the Competitive Effects of the Delta/Continental/Northwest Code-Share Alliance," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(4), pages 743-766, November.
  19. Orit Hassin & Oz Shy, 2004. "Code-sharing Agreements and Interconnections in Markets for International Flights," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(3), pages 337-352, 08.
  20. Park, Jong-Hun & Park, Namgyoo K. & Zhang, Anming, 2003. "The impact of international alliances on rival firm value: a study of the British Airways/USAir Alliance," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 1-18, January.
  21. Park, Jong-Hun & Zhang, Anming, 1998. "Airline alliances and partner firms' outputs," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 245-255, December.
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