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A panel data analysis of code-sharing, antitrust immunity, and open skies treaties in international aviation markets

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  • W. Whalen

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Abstract

This paper estimates the effects of code-sharing, antitrust immunity, and Open Skies treaties on prices, output, and capacity using an eleven-year panel of U.S.-Europe data. Code-sharing and immunized alliances are found to have significantly lower prices than does traditional interline (multi-carrier) service, but the effects are smaller in magnitude than those found in previous results that rely on cross-sectional data. Statistical tests that prices for immunized alliance service are equal to online (single carrier) service often cannot be rejected, providing additional evidence that immunity grants allow immunized carriers to internalize a double marginalization problem. Estimated output effects, consistent with the price effects, show that alliances are associated with large increases in passenger volumes. Lastly, estimates suggest that capacity expansions associated with “Open Skies” treaties are due entirely to expansion by immunized carriers on routes between their hubs. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Suggested Citation

  • W. Whalen, 2007. "A panel data analysis of code-sharing, antitrust immunity, and open skies treaties in international aviation markets," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 30(1), pages 39-61, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:revind:v:30:y:2007:i:1:p:39-61
    DOI: 10.1007/s11151-007-9125-0
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jan K. Brueckner, 2003. "International Airfares in the Age of Alliances: The Effects of Codesharing and Antitrust Immunity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(1), pages 105-118, February.
    2. Volodymyr Bilotkach, 2005. "Price Competition between International Airline Alliances," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 39(2), pages 167-190, May.
    3. Bamberger, Gustavo E & Carlton, Dennis W & Neumann, Lynette R, 2004. "An Empirical Investigation of the Competitive Effects of Domestic Airline Alliances," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(1), pages 195-222, April.
    4. Brueckner, Jan K & Whalen, W Tom, 2000. "The Price Effects of International Airline Alliances," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(2), pages 503-545, October.
    5. Jong-Hun Park & Anming Zhang, 2000. "An Empirical Analysis of Global Airline Alliances: Cases in North Atlantic Markets," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 16(4), pages 367-384, June.
    6. Park, Jong-Hun, 1997. "The effects of airline alliances on markets and economic welfare," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 181-195, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Zhang, Anming & Czerny, Achim I., 2012. "Airports and airlines economics and policy: An interpretive review of recent research," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 15-34.
    2. Alderighi, Marco & Gaggero, Alberto A. & Piga, Claudio A., 2015. "The effect of code-share agreements on the temporal profile of airline fares," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 42-54.
    3. Anca D. Cristea & Russell Hillberry & Aaditya Mattoo, 2015. "Open Skies over the Middle East," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1650-1681, November.
    4. Brueckner, Jan K. & Proost, Stef, 2010. "Carve-outs under airline antitrust immunity," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 657-668, November.
    5. Philippe Gagnepain & Pedro Marín, 2010. "The effects of airline alliances: what do the aggregate data say?," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 1(3), pages 251-276, July.
    6. Hattori Keisuke & Lin Ming-Hsin, 2011. "Alliance Partner Choice in Markets with Vertical and Horizontal Externalities," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-27, June.
    7. Cristea, Anca D., 2011. "Buyer-seller relationships in international trade: Evidence from U.S. States' exports and business-class travel," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 207-220, July.
    8. Gayle, Philip G. & Thomas, Tyson, 2016. "Assessing firm behavior in carve-out markets: Evidence on the impact of carve-out policy," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 178-194.
    9. Ricardo Flores-Fillol & Rafael Moner-Colonques, 2011. "Endogenous Mergers of Complements with Mixed Bundling," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 39(3), pages 231-251, November.
    10. Bilotkach, Volodymyr & Hüschelrath, Kai, 2015. "Balancing competition and cooperation: Evidence from transatlantic airline markets," ZEW Discussion Papers 15-059, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    11. repec:hal:journl:hal-00622831 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Ozbugday, F.C., 2012. "Empirical essays on ex post evaluations of competition and regulatory authorities decisions and policy reforms," Other publications TiSEM 3ef7e12f-223a-4622-9d0c-5, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    13. Stephen Martin, 2012. "Market Structure and Market Performance," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 40(2), pages 87-108, March.
    14. Achim I. Czerny & Peter-J. Jost & Benny Mantin, 2010. "Pricing in Overlapping Transport Networks," WHU Working Paper Series - Economics Group 10-05, WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management.
    15. Adler, Nicole & Mantin, Benny, 2015. "Government and company contracts: The effect on service and prices in international airline markets," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 166-177.
    16. Gayle Philip G. & Thomas Tyson, 2015. "Product Quality Effects of International Airline Alliances, Antitrust Immunity, and Domestic Mergers," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 14(1), pages 45-74, March.
    17. Lin, Ming Hsin & Mantin, Benny, 2015. "Airport privatization in international inter-hub and spoke networks," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 189-199.
    18. Bilotkach, Volodymyr & Hüschelrath, Kai, 2012. "Airline alliances and antitrust policy: The role of efficiencies," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 76-84.
    19. Bernardo, Valeria & Fageda, Xavier, 2017. "The effects of the Morocco-European Union open skies agreement: A difference-in-differences analysis," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 24-41.
    20. Brueckner, Jan K. & Lee, Darin & Singer, Ethan S., 2013. "Airline competition and domestic US airfares: A comprehensivereappraisal," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 1-17.

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