Incidence, Salience and Spillovers: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Tax Credits on Wages
Tax credits have been a popular way to alleviate in-work poverty. A common empirical assumption is that the benefit of the tax credit is borne solely by the claimant workers. However, economic theory suggests no particular reason why this should be the case. This paper investigates the impact of the Working Families' Tax Credit, introduced in the UK in 1999, on wages. Unlike similar tax credit policies, this tax credit was paid through the wage packet, making it more salient to the employer. Using a novel identification strategy, we can separately identify the effect on wages associated with an increase in the amount of tax credit and that associated with the change in salience. We find compelling evidence that: (1) through the salience mechanism the firm cuts the wage of claimant workers relative to similarly skilled non-claimants by 30 percent of the tax credit, which is approximately 7 percent of the wage, and (2) there is a negative spillover effect onto the wages of claimant and non-claimant workers of 1.7 percent, which is approximately 8 percent of the tax credit for claimant workers.
|Date of creation:||May 2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://cep.lse.ac.uk/_new/publications/series.asp?prog=CEP|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Erich Battistin & Enrico Rettore, 2003.
"Another look at the regression discontinuity design,"
CeMMAP working papers
CWP01/03, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Battistin, Erich & Enrico Rettore, 2003. "Another look at the Regression Discontinuity Design," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 18, Royal Economic Society.
- Don Fullerton & Gilbert E. Metcalf, 2002.
NBER Working Papers
8829, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Don Fullerton & Gilbert E. Metcalf, 2001. "Tax Incidence," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0106, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- Gilbert E. Metcalf, 2006. "Tax Incidence," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0607, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- Reamonn Lydon & Ian Walker, 2005.
"Welfare to work, wages and wage growth,"
Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 26(3), pages 335-370, September.
- Brown, Charles & Medoff, James, 1989.
"The Employer Size-Wage Effect,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(5), pages 1027-59, October.
- Bruce D. Meyer & Dan T. Rosenbaum, 2001.
"Welfare, The Earned Income Tax Credit, And The Labor Supply Of Single Mothers,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 116(3), pages 1063-1114, August.
- Bruce D. Meyer & Dan T. Rosenbaum, 1998. "Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers," JCPR Working Papers 32, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- Bruce D. Meyer & Dan T. Rosenbaum, 1999. "Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers," NBER Working Papers 7363, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hausman, Jerry A, 1978.
"Specification Tests in Econometrics,"
Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-71, November.
- Hilary Hoynes & Richard Blundell, 2001.
"Has "In-Work" Benefit Reform Helped the Labour Market?,"
NBER Working Papers
8546, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Richard Blundell & Hilary W. Hoynes, 2004. "Has 'In-Work' Benefit Reform Helped the Labor Market?," NBER Chapters, in: Seeking a Premier Economy: The Economic Effects of British Economic Reforms, 1980-2000, pages 411-460 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mike Brewer & Tom Clark & Matthew Wakefield, 2002. "Five years of social security reforms in the UK," IFS Working Papers W02/12, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Bingley, P. & Lanot, G., 1999.
"Labour Supply and the Incidence of Income Tax on Wages,"
99-01, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
- Paul Bingley & Gauthier Lanot, 1998. "Labour Supply and the Incidence of Income Tax on Wages," Keele Department of Economics Discussion Papers (1995-2001) 98/13, Department of Economics, Keele University, revised Nov 1999.
- Richard Blundell & Alan Duncan & Costas Meghir, 1998.
"Estimating Labor Supply Responses Using Tax Reforms,"
Econometric Society, vol. 66(4), pages 827-862, July.
- Richard Blundell & Alan Duncan & Costas Meghir, 1995. "Estimating labour supply responses using tax reforms," IFS Working Papers W95/07, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-85, May.
- James Heckman & Lance Lochner & Ricardo Cossa, 2002. "Learning-By-Doing Vs. On-the-Job Training: Using Variation Induced by the EITC to Distinguish Between Models of Skill Formation," NBER Working Papers 9083, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Richard Blundell & Alan Duncan & Julian McCrae & Costas Meghir, 2000. "The labour market impact of the working families’ tax credit," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 21(1), pages 75-103, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cep:cepdps:dp0724. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.