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Gender Differences in Commuting: An Empirical Study of the Greater Los Angeles Metropolitan Area


  • Kim, Seyoung


Since the nineteen-seventies, as a byproduct of our rapidly changing social structure, gender equity has become a major concern. This concern and the increase in the female labor force participation rate and in the female commuting population has motivated scholars to analyze and explain male and female commuting differences. Despite the many studies of gender-based differences in commuting behavior over the past decade, scholars still have not been able to agree on the reasons males commute longer distances than females. A general consensus, except for the concerns of Gordon, Kumar and Richardson (1989), is that socioeconomic and spatial structures constrain females more than males, resulting in women having shorter commuting than males. With regard to socioeconomic constraints, the first thorough examination of those factors which possibly affect gender differences in commuting was done by Hanson and Johnston (1985). Later, the effect of household type was examined by Johnston-Anumonwo (1992) using the same data used by Hanson and Johnston (1985).

Suggested Citation

  • Kim, Seyoung, 1994. "Gender Differences in Commuting: An Empirical Study of the Greater Los Angeles Metropolitan Area," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2n60d857, University of California Transportation Center.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt2n60d857

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Simpson, Wayne, 1980. "A simultaneous model of workplace and residential location incorporating job search," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 330-349, November.
    2. Madden, Janice Fanning, 1980. "Urban Land Use and the Growth in Two-Earner Households," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(2), pages 191-197, May.
    3. Janice Fanning Madden, 1981. "Why Women Work Closer to Home," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 18(2), pages 181-194, June.
    4. Larry D. Singell & Jane H. Lillydahl, 1986. "An Empirical Analysis of the Commute to Work Patterns of Males and Females in Two-Earner Households," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 23(2), pages 119-129, April.
    5. Small, Kenneth A & Song, Shunfeng, 1992. ""Wasteful" Commuting: A Resolution," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(4), pages 888-898, August.
    6. Janice F. Madden & Lee-in Chen Chiu, 1990. "The Wage Effects of Residential Location and Commuting Constraints on Employed Married Women," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 27(3), pages 353-369, June.
    7. Brownstone, David & Golob, Thomas F., 1992. "The effectiveness of ridesharing incentives: Discrete-choice models of commuting in Southern California," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 5-24, March.
    8. Afsaneh Assadian & Jan Ondrich, 1993. "Residential Location, Housing Demand and Labour Supply Decisions of One- and Two-Earner Households: The Case of Bogota, Colombia," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 30(1), pages 73-86, February.
    9. Janice F. Madden & JMichelle J. White, 1980. "Spatial Implications of Increases in the Female Labor Force: A Theoretical and Empirical Synthesis," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 56(4), pages 432-446.
    10. Gera, Surendra & Kuhn, Peter, 1980. "An empirical model of residential location and the journey-to-work in a metropolitan area," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 67-77.
    11. Curran, Christopher & Carlson, Leonard A. & Ford, David A., 1982. "A theory of residential location decisions of two-worker households," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 102-114, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Plaut, Pnina O., 2006. "The intra-household choices regarding commuting and housing," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 40(7), pages 561-571, August.

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