European Integration, Nationalism, and European Identity
Early theorists of European integration speculated that economic integration would lead to political integration and a European identity.Â A European identity has not displaced national identities in the EU, but, for a significant share of EU citizens, a European identity exists alongside a national identity.Â At the same time, political parties asserting more traditional nationalist identities and policies have directed their dissatisfaction against immigrants, foreigners, and, sometimes, the EU. Those who participate in â€œEuropeâ€ are more likely to develop a European identity, while those whose economic and social horizons are essentially local are more likely to assert nationalist identities.Â
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- Haas, Ernst B., 1961. "International Integration: The European and the Universal Process," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(03), pages 366-392, June.
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