Implementing Kyoto-type Flexibility Mechanisms for India: Issues and Prospects
This paper examines various aspects of market-based instruments for greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement for India, particularly the linkages among these instruments and issues related to their implementation. It has been argued in light of concessions made at Bonn and Marrakech, the market for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects will be small compared to GHG emissions in developing countries) and that it will be characterised by low demand and low prices. The paper examines these arguments in the context of India and the likely nature and extent of India's involvement in CDM activities. It also addresses the issue of division of gains from implementing CDM projects between the host and funding parties. Another question examined is whether India stands to gain or lose if emissions trading is realised even if it remains outside such an arrangement during the initial commitment period. In the long run, however, it is inevitable that India along with other rapidly industrialising countries will have to take on GHG reduction commitments. In this context, the important questions that this paper addresses are: (i) the possibilities of convergence across Kyoto-type flexibility mechanisms, particularly emissions trading and CDM, and (ii) issues of monitoring, enforcement and verification for these mechanisms. With regard to (ii) the paper compares the pros and cons of emissions trading and CDM from a conceptual and a practical point of view.
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