Spatial Commuting Patterns of German Regional Labour Markets: A Sustainability Perspective
This paper aims to investigate the relationship between commuting and spatial labour market developments in the framework of sustainability issues. To do so, we propose, first, an exploratory investigation of the effects of inbound commuter flows on employment in regional labour markets in Germany. Next, we address sustainability issues as a common umbrella for the relationship ‘economy-transportation’. In this context, we show that the German production system is faced with negative environmental externalities, which are clearly associated with a specific transport mode, viz. the private car. Negative environmental externalities as a result of modal choices in Germany are confirmed by data from EU-15 countries. Public transport, in particular the train, appears to be more environmentally-benign. Our results bring to light that, on average, commuter flows have a positive and robust effect on employment in the receiving German labour market districts, while, for commuting flows, public transport, especially the train, is a more environmentally-benign mode of transport, compared with the car, in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. In the light of possible policy strategies, the paper argues that sustainability may lead to positive economic effects; in particular, the improvement of the public transport system, which can provide more opportunities for sustainable commuting patterns, may lead to favourable employment perspectives for the local or regional labour force.
|Date of creation:||Mar 2012|
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- Behrens, Kristian & Mion, Giordano & Murata, Yasusada & Südekum, Jens, 2011.
CEPR Discussion Papers
8572, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Behrens, Kristian & Mion, Giordano & Murata, Yasusada & Suedekum, Jens, 2013. "Spatial Frictions," IZA Discussion Papers 7175, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Behrens, Kristian & Mion, Giordano & Murata, Yasusada & Suedekum, Jens, 2014. "Spatial frictions," DICE Discussion Papers 160, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
- Kristian Behrens & Giordano Mion & Yasusada Murata & Jens Südekum, 2011. "Spatial Frictions," CEP Discussion Papers dp1108, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Bakker, P. & Koopmans, C. & Nijkamp, P., 2009. "Appraisal of integrated transport policies," Serie Research Memoranda 0052, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
- Joshua Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 2001.
"Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments,"
NBER Working Papers
8456, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Joshua D. Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 2001. "Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 69-85, Fall.
- Joshua Angrist & Alan Krueger, 2001. "Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments," Working Papers 834, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
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