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Forecasting in the presence of recent structural change


  • Eklund, Jana

    () (Bank of England)

  • Kapetanios, George

    () (Queen Mary College, London)

  • Price, Simon

    () (Bank of England)


We examine how to forecast after a recent break. We consider monitoring for change and then combining forecasts from models that do and do not use data before the change; and robust methods, namely rolling regressions, forecast averaging over different windows and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) forecasting. We derive analytical results for the performance of the robust methods relative to a full-sample recursive benchmark. For a location model subject to stochastic breaks the relative mean square forecast error ranking is EWMA

Suggested Citation

  • Eklund, Jana & Kapetanios, George & Price, Simon, 2010. "Forecasting in the presence of recent structural change," Bank of England working papers 406, Bank of England.
  • Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:0406

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 1998. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 47-78, January.
    2. M. Hashem Pesaran & Andreas Pick, 2008. "Forecasting Random Walks Under Drift Instability," CESifo Working Paper Series 2293, CESifo Group Munich.
    3. Hendry, David F., 2000. "On detectable and non-detectable structural change," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-2), pages 45-65, July.
    4. M. Hashem Pesaran & Davide Pettenuzzo & Allan Timmermann, 2006. "Forecasting Time Series Subject to Multiple Structural Breaks," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 73(4), pages 1057-1084.
    5. Kurt Hornik & Friedrich Leisch & Christian Kleiber & Achim Zeileis, 2005. "Monitoring structural change in dynamic econometric models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(1), pages 99-121.
    6. Leisch, Friedrich & Hornik, Kurt & Kuan, Chung-Ming, 2000. "Monitoring Structural Changes With The Generalized Fluctuation Test," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(06), pages 835-854, December.
    7. Kapetanios, George, 2007. "Estimating deterministically time-varying variances in regression models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 97-104, November.
    8. Kapetanios, G. & Tzavalis, E., 2010. "Modeling structural breaks in economic relationships using large shocks," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 417-436, March.
    9. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Timmermann, Allan, 2007. "Selection of estimation window in the presence of breaks," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 137(1), pages 134-161, March.
    10. Chu, Chia-Shang James & Stinchcombe, Maxwell & White, Halbert, 1996. "Monitoring Structural Change," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(5), pages 1045-1065, September.
    11. Orbe, Susan & Ferreira, Eva & Rodriguez-Poo, Juan, 2005. "Nonparametric estimation of time varying parameters under shape restrictions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 53-77, May.
    12. Gary Koop & Simon M. Potter, 2007. "Estimation and Forecasting in Models with Multiple Breaks," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(3), pages 763-789.
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    Cited by:

    1. Natalia Bailey & George Kapetanios & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2016. "Exponent of Cross‐Sectional Dependence: Estimation and Inference," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(6), pages 929-960, September.
    2. Barnett, Alina & Mumtaz, Haroon & Theodoridis, Konstantinos, 2014. "Forecasting UK GDP growth and inflation under structural change. A comparison of models with time-varying parameters," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 129-143.
    3. Jana Eklund & George Kapetanios & Simon Price, 2013. "Robust Forecast Methods and Monitoring during Structural Change," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 81, pages 3-27, October.
    4. Luc Bauwens & Gary Koop & Dimitris Korobilis & Jeroen V.K. Rombouts, 2015. "The Contribution of Structural Break Models to Forecasting Macroeconomic Series," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(4), pages 596-620, June.
    5. Giraitis, Liudas & Kapetanios, George & Price, Simon, 2013. "Adaptive forecasting in the presence of recent and ongoing structural change," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 177(2), pages 153-170.
    6. Tian, Jing & Anderson, Heather M., 2014. "Forecast combinations under structural break uncertainty," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 161-175.
    7. repec:cty:dpaper:12/02 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Kirdan Lees, 2009. "Overview of a recent Reserve Bank workshop: nowcasting with model combination," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, vol. 72, pages 31-33, March.
    9. Vipin Arora and Jozef Lieskovsky, 2014. "Natural Gas and U.S. Economic Activity," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).

    More about this item


    monitoring; recent structural change; forecast combination; robust forecasts;

    JEL classification:

    • C10 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - General
    • C59 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Other

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