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Credit channels and consumption in Europe: empirical evidence


  • Gabe de Bondt


This paper studies the macroeconomic relevance of credit channels of monetary policy by examining the impact of the external finance premium (EFP), that may vary over the business cycle, on private consumption in Europe. A consumption model incorporates credit channels by assuming that liquidity-constrained consumers not only use current income for financing their consumption, but also external finance, which availability depends on the EFP. The empirical analysis shows an accelerator effect of the EFP on consumption for Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In contrast, for France, the United Kingdom and Belgium no evidence in favour of this financial propagation mechanism has been found.

Suggested Citation

  • Gabe de Bondt, 1999. "Credit channels and consumption in Europe: empirical evidence," BIS Working Papers 69, Bank for International Settlements.
  • Handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:69

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jappelli, Tullio & Pagano, Marco, 1989. "Consumption and Capital Market Imperfections: An International Comparison," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1088-1105, December.
    2. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1995. "Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 27-48, Fall.
    3. Boswijk, H. Peter, 1995. "Conditional and structural error correction models reply," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 173-175, September.
    4. Campbell, John Y & Mankiw, N Gregory, 1990. "Permanent Income, Current Income, and Consumption," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 8(3), pages 265-279, July.
    5. Martin M.G. Fase, 1998. "On Money and Credit in Europe," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 1550.
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    Cited by:

    1. de Bondt, Gabe, 2002. "Euro area corporate debt securities market: first empirical evidence," Working Paper Series 0164, European Central Bank.
    2. Rinaldi, Laura & Sanchis-Arellano, Alicia, 2006. "Household debt sustainability: what explains household non-performing loans? An empirical analysis," Working Paper Series 570, European Central Bank.
    3. G.J. De Bondt, 1999. "Credit channels in Europe: a cross-country investigation," BNL Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 52(210), pages 295-326.
    4. Meral Karasulu, 2008. "Stress Testing Household Debt in Korea," IMF Working Papers 08/255, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Anna Florio, 2013. "The Implied Consumer Euler Rate: What Role for Financial Frictions?," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 59(4), pages 650-675, December.

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