Pricing-to-market by Brazilian Exporters: a Panel Cointegration Approach
This paper investigates Brazilian exporter's pricing behavior, over the longrun, following destination specific exchange rate shocks. The panel cointegration method of Bai, Kao and Ng (2009) is shown to identify the long-run parameter of interest. The method crucially depends on identification and controlling for the common trend in prices to different countries, a trend which is structurally interpreted, like originally proposed by Kneeter (1989), as the exporter's marginal cost. We find evidence of incomplete exchange-rate pass-through in the long-run, which supports the market structure explanations of Krugman (1986), known in the literature as pricing-to-market, over contending short-run sticky-price explanations. The degree of long-run pass-through is also shown to be positively related to technological intensity in the sector, a proxy for low elasticity of substitution of varieties.
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