IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bca/bocawp/06-44.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Long-Term Effects of Cross-Listing Investor Recognition, and Ownership Structure on Valuation

Author

Listed:
  • Michael R. King
  • Dan Segal

Abstract

The authors show that the widening of a foreign firm's U.S. investor base and the improved information environment associated with cross-listing on a U.S. exchange each have a separately identifiable effect on a firm's valuation. The increase in valuation associated with cross-listing is transitory, not permanent. Valuations of Canadian firms peak in the year of cross-listing and fall monotonically thereafter, regardless of the level of U.S. investor holdings or the ownership structure of the firm. Cross-listed firms with a 20 per cent or more blockholder attract a similar number of U.S. institutional investors as widely held firms, on average, but experience a lower increase in valuation at high levels of investor recognition. While U.S. investors are less willing to invest in firms with dual-class shares, these firms benefit more from cross-listing even when they fail to widen their U.S. investor base, suggesting that the reduction in information asymmetry between controlling and minority investors has a separate impact on valuation for firms where agency problems are greatest.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael R. King & Dan Segal, 2006. "The Long-Term Effects of Cross-Listing Investor Recognition, and Ownership Structure on Valuation," Staff Working Papers 06-44, Bank of Canada.
  • Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:06-44
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/wp06-44.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jay R. Ritter & Ivo Welch, 2002. "A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing, and Allocations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1795-1828, August.
    2. Craig Doidge & G. Andrew Karolyi & Karl V. Lins & Darius P. Miller & René M. Stulz, 2009. "Private Benefits of Control, Ownership, and the Cross‐listing Decision," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(1), pages 425-466, February.
    3. Doidge, Craig & Karolyi, G. Andrew & Stulz, Rene M., 2004. "Why are foreign firms listed in the U.S. worth more?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 205-238, February.
    4. Stijn Claessens & Simeon Djankov & Joseph P. H. Fan & Larry H. P. Lang, 2002. "Disentangling the Incentive and Entrenchment Effects of Large Shareholdings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2741-2771, December.
    5. Errunza, Vihang R. & Miller, Darius P., 2000. "Market Segmentation and the Cost of the Capital in International Equity Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 35(4), pages 577-600, December.
    6. Bailey, Warren & Andrew Karolyi, G. & Salva, Carolina, 2006. "The economic consequences of increased disclosure: Evidence from international cross-listings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 175-213, July.
    7. Grossman, Sanford J. & Hart, Oliver D., 1988. "One share-one vote and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 175-202, January.
    8. Hali J. Edison & Francis E. Warnock, 2004. "U.S. Investors' Emerging Market Equity Portfolios: A Security-Level Analysis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(3), pages 691-704, August.
    9. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R, 1995. "The New Issues Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 23-51, March.
    10. Gozzi, Juan Carlos & Levine, Ross & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2008. "Internationalization and the evolution of corporate valuation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 607-632, June.
    11. Michael L. Lemmon & Karl V. Lins, 2003. "Ownership Structure, Corporate Governance, and Firm Value: Evidence from the East Asian Financial Crisis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(4), pages 1445-1468, August.
    12. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez‐De‐Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, April.
    13. Christian Leuz & Karl V. Lins & Francis E. Warnock, 2010. "Do Foreigners Invest Less in Poorly Governed Firms?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(3), pages 3245-3285, March.
    14. Ritter, Jay R, 1991. "The Long-run Performance of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 3-27, March.
    15. Christian Leuz, 2003. "Discussion of ADRs, Analysts, and Accuracy: Does Cross‐Listing in the United States Improve a Firm's Information Environment and Increase Market Value?," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 347-362, May.
    16. Lins, Karl V., 2003. "Equity Ownership and Firm Value in Emerging Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(1), pages 159-184, March.
    17. Baker, H. Kent & Nofsinger, John R. & Weaver, Daniel G., 2002. "International Cross-Listing and Visibility," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(3), pages 495-521, September.
    18. Smith, Brian F. & Amoako-Adu, Ben, 1995. "Relative Prices of Dual Class Shares," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(2), pages 223-239, June.
    19. McConnell, John J & Sanger, Gary C, 1987. "The Puzzle in Post-listing Common Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(1), pages 119-140, March.
    20. Randall K. Morck & David A. Strangeland & Bernard Yeung, 1998. "Inherited Wealth, Corporate Control and Economic Growth," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 209, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    21. James J. Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Petra Todd, 1998. "Matching As An Econometric Evaluation Estimator," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(2), pages 261-294.
    22. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    23. Randall K. Morck, 2000. "Concentrated Corporate Ownership," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number morc00-1, January-J.
    24. repec:hrv:faseco:30747162 is not listed on IDEAS
    25. Randall Morck & David Stangeland & Bernard Yeung, 2000. "Inherited Wealth, Corporate Control, and Economic Growth The Canadian Disease?," NBER Chapters, in: Concentrated Corporate Ownership, pages 319-372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    26. Reese, William Jr. & Weisbach, Michael S., 2002. "Protection of minority shareholder interests, cross-listings in the United States, and subsequent equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 65-104, October.
    27. Morck, Randall K. (ed.), 2000. "Concentrated Corporate Ownership," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226536781, December.
    28. Dharan, Bala G & Ikenberry, David L, 1995. "The Long-Run Negative Drift of Post-listing Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1547-1574, December.
    29. Arturo Bris & Salvatore Cantale & George P. Nishiotis, 2007. "A Breakdown of the Valuation Effects of International Cross‐listing," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 13(3), pages 498-530, June.
    30. Franck Bancel & Cusha Mittoo, 2001. "European Managerial Perceptions of the Net Benefits of Foreign Stock Listings," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 7(2), pages 213-236, June.
    31. Merton, Robert C, 1987. "A Simple Model of Capital Market Equilibrium with Incomplete Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(3), pages 483-510, July.
    32. Nenova, Tatiana, 2003. "The value of corporate voting rights and control: A cross-country analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 325-351, June.
    33. DeAngelo, Harry & DeAngelo, Linda, 1985. "Managerial ownership of voting rights : A study of public corporations with dual classes of common stock," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 33-69, March.
    34. Sarkissian, Sergei & Schill, Michael J., 2004. "Are There Permanent Valuation Gains to Overseas Listing? Evidence from Market Sequencing and Selection," Working Papers 05-4, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Karolyi, G. Andrew, 2012. "Corporate governance, agency problems and international cross-listings: A defense of the bonding hypothesis," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 516-547.
    2. Michael R. King & Dan Segal, 2004. "International Cross-Listing and the Bonding Hypothesis," Staff Working Papers 04-17, Bank of Canada.
    3. Renée Adams & Daniel Ferreira, 2008. "One Share-One Vote: The Empirical Evidence," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 12(1), pages 51-91.
    4. Bernard Yeung & Randall Morck & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2004. "Corporate Governance, Economic Entrenchment and Growth," Working Papers 04-21, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    5. Jyh-Dean Hwang, 2013. "Are There Valuation and Operating Performance Gains from International Cross Listing? Evidence from Taiwan’s Depositary Receipt Issuers," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 3(2), pages 137-163, December.
    6. Jyh-Dean Hwang, 2013. "Are There Valuation and Operating Performance Gains from International Cross Listing? Evidence from Taiwan’s Depositary Receipt Issuers," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 3(2), pages 137-163, December.
    7. Ugur Lel & Darius P. Miller, 2008. "International Cross‐Listing, Firm Performance, and Top Management Turnover: A Test of the Bonding Hypothesis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(4), pages 1897-1937, August.
    8. Ghadhab, Imen & M’rad, Mouna, 2018. "Does US cross-listing come with incremental benefit for already UK cross-listed firms," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 188-204.
    9. Teresa Chu & In-Mu Haw & Bryan Lee & Woody Wu, 2014. "Cost of equity capital, control divergence, and institutions: the international evidence," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 483-527, October.
    10. D'Souza, Juliet & Nash, Robert, 2017. "Private benefits of public control: Evidence of political and economic benefits of state ownership," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 232-247.
    11. Hail, Luzi & Leuz, Christian, 2009. "Cost of capital effects and changes in growth expectations around U.S. cross-listings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(3), pages 428-454, September.
    12. John Ammer & Sara B. Holland & David C. Smith & Francis E. Warnock, 2006. "Look at Me Now: What Attracts U.S. Shareholders?," NBER Working Papers 12500, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Ayyagari, Meghana & Doidge, Craig, 2010. "Does cross-listing facilitate changes in corporate ownership and control?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 208-223, January.
    14. Pajuste, Anete, 2005. "Determinants and consequences of the unification of dual-class shares," Working Paper Series 465, European Central Bank.
    15. Dahya, Jay & Dimitrov, Orlin & McConnell, John J., 2008. "Dominant shareholders, corporate boards, and corporate value: A cross-country analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 73-100, January.
    16. Christian Leuz & Karl V. Lins & Francis E. Warnock, 2010. "Do Foreigners Invest Less in Poorly Governed Firms?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(3), pages 3245-3285, March.
    17. Fernandes, Nuno & Giannetti, Mariassunta, 2014. "On the fortunes of stock exchanges and their reversals: Evidence from foreign listings," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 157-176.
    18. Anaïs Hamelin-Schertzer, 2010. "Is there tunneling in Small Business Groups? Evidence from French SMEs," Working Papers CEB 10-003.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    19. Mike Burkart & Fausto Panunzi & Andrei Shleifer, 2003. "Family Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(5), pages 2167-2201, October.
    20. Ayyagari, Meghana & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2012. "Financing of firms in developing countries : lessons from research," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6036, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Financial markets; International topics;

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:06-44. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bocgvca.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bocgvca.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.