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Degree of Internationalization and Performance: An Analysis of Canadian Banks


  • Walid Hejazi
  • Eric Santor


The international business literature measures the link between the degree of internationalization (DOI) of a firm's activities and its performance. The results of this literature are mixed. The authors extend the analysis to Canadian bank-level data, but they also take into account the riskiness of each bank's foreign-asset exposure. The results establish a positive, but weak, relationship between DOI and performance--one that is dependent on each bank's risk profile. The authors discuss the policy implications of their analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Walid Hejazi & Eric Santor, 2005. "Degree of Internationalization and Performance: An Analysis of Canadian Banks," Staff Working Papers 05-32, Bank of Canada.
  • Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:05-32

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jung, Yojin, 1991. "Multinationality and profitability," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 179-187, September.
    2. Bernard, Andrew B. & Bradford Jensen, J., 1999. "Exceptional exporter performance: cause, effect, or both?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 1-25, February.
    3. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    4. Kannan Ramaswamy & K Galen Kroeck & William Renforth, 1996. "Measuring the Degree of Internationalization of a firm: A Comment," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 27(1), pages 167-177, March.
    5. Jason Allen & Ying Liu, 2007. "Efficiency and economies of scale of large Canadian banks," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 40(1), pages 225-244, February.
    6. Linda S. Goldberg, 2002. "When Is U.S. Bank Lending to Emerging Markets Volatile?," NBER Chapters,in: Preventing Currency Crises in Emerging Markets, pages 171-196 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Farok J Contractor & Sumit K Kundu & Chin-Chun Hsu, 2003. "A three-stage theory of international expansion: the link between multinationality and performance in the service sector," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 34(1), pages 5-18, January.
    8. Daniel Sullivan, 1994. "Measuring the Degree of Internationalization of a Firm," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 25(2), pages 325-342, June.
    9. Helpman, Elhanan, 1984. "A Simple Theory of International Trade with Multinational Corporations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(3), pages 451-471, June.
    10. N Capar & M Kotabe, 2003. "The relationship between international diversification and performance in service firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 34(4), pages 345-355, July.
    11. Anderson, T. W. & Hsiao, Cheng, 1982. "Formulation and estimation of dynamic models using panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 47-82, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Paul D. Gilbert & Erik Meijer, 2006. "Money and Credit Factors," Staff Working Papers 06-3, Bank of Canada.
    2. J. Outreville, 2010. "Internationalization, Performance and Volatility: The World Largest Financial Groups," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 38(2), pages 115-134, December.
    3. repec:asi:aeafrj:2017:p:1167-1178 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Financial institutions;

    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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