IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bca/bocadp/21-12.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Cash and COVID-19: The impact of the second wave in Canada

Author

Listed:
  • Heng Chen
  • Walter Engert
  • Marie-Hélène Felt
  • Kim P. Huynh
  • Gradon Nicholls
  • Daneal O'Habib
  • Julia Zhu

Abstract

We use consumer surveys conducted in April, July and November 2020 to study how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the demand for cash and the use of various methods of payment. Continuing from Chen et al. (2020, 2021), we use data from the Bank Note Distribution System (BNDS) to track how the amount of cash in circulation changed throughout 2020. The November 2020 survey included a three-day payment diary. We compare this diary with similar diaries from 2009, 2013 and 2017 to study long-term trends in cash use and payment methods.

Suggested Citation

  • Heng Chen & Walter Engert & Marie-Hélène Felt & Kim P. Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Daneal O'Habib & Julia Zhu, 2021. "Cash and COVID-19: The impact of the second wave in Canada," Discussion Papers 2021-12, Bank of Canada.
  • Handle: RePEc:bca:bocadp:21-12
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/sdp2021-12.pdf
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kevin Foster & Claire Greene, 2021. "Consumer Behavior in a Health Crisis: What Happened with Cash?," Policy Hub 2021-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    2. Gerrit Bilkes, 1997. "The new bank note distribution system," Bank of Canada Review, Bank of Canada, vol. 1997(Summer), pages 41-54.
    3. Christopher Henry & Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Mitchell Nicholson, 2019. "2018 Bitcoin Omnibus Survey: Awareness and Usage," Discussion Papers 2019-10, Bank of Canada.
    4. Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Oleksandr Shcherbakov, 2019. "Explaining the Interplay Between Merchant Acceptance and Consumer Adoption in Two-Sided Markets for Payment Methods," Staff Working Papers 19-32, Bank of Canada.
    5. Heng Chen & Walter Engert & Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Mitchell Nicholson & Julia Zhu, 2020. "Cash and COVID-19: The impact of the pandemic on demand for and use of cash," Discussion Papers 2020-6, Bank of Canada.
    6. Heng Chen & Q. Rallye Shen, 2019. "Variance Estimation for Survey-Weighted Data Using Bootstrap Resampling Methods: 2013 Methods-of-Payment Survey Questionnaire," Advances in Econometrics, in: Kim P. Huynh & David T. Jacho-chávez & Gautam Tripathi (ed.), The Econometrics of Complex Survey Data, volume 39, pages 87-106, Emerald Publishing Ltd.
    7. M. Saisana & A. Saltelli & S. Tarantola, 2005. "Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques as tools for the quality assessment of composite indicators," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 168(2), pages 307-323, March.
    8. Heng Chen & Q. Rallye Shen, 2017. "Variance estimation for survey-weighted data using bootstrap resampling methods: 2013 methods-of-payment," Canadian Stata Users' Group Meetings 2017 13, Stata Users Group.
    9. Heng Chen & Walter Engert & Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Julia Zhu, 2021. "Cash and COVID-19: The Effects of Lifting Containment Measures on Cash Demand and Use," Discussion Papers 2021-3, Bank of Canada.
    10. Christopher Henry & Kim Huynh & Angelika Welte, 2018. "2017 Methods-of-Payment Survey Report," Discussion Papers 18-17, Bank of Canada.
    11. Mitchell, Olivia S. & Lusardi, Annamaria (ed.), 2011. "Financial Literacy: Implications for Retirement Security and the Financial Marketplace," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199696819.
    12. Heng Chen & Marie-Hélène Felt & Christopher Henry, 2018. "2017 Methods-of-Payment Survey: Sample Calibration and Variance Estimation," Technical Reports 114, Bank of Canada.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Heng Chen & Walter Engert & Kim Huynh & Daneal O’Habib & Joy Wu & Julia Zhu, 2022. "Cash and COVID-19: What happened in 2021," Discussion Papers 2022-8, Bank of Canada.
    2. Ashworth, Jonathan & Goodhart, C. A. E., 2021. "The great Covid cash surge - digitalisation hasn't dented cash's safe haven role," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 112432, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    3. Jonker, Nicole & van der Cruijsen, Carin & Bijlsma, Michiel & Bolt, Wilko, 2022. "Pandemic payment patterns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 143(C).
    4. Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo & Bautista-González, Manuel A & González-Correa, Ignacio, 2021. "La transformación en el uso de efectivo y pagos digitales durante la pandemia de Covid-19 [Thye transformation in the use of cash and digital payments during the Covid-19 pandemioc]," MPRA Paper 109943, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Heng Chen & Walter Engert & Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Julia Zhu, 2021. "Cash and COVID-19: The Effects of Lifting Containment Measures on Cash Demand and Use," Discussion Papers 2021-3, Bank of Canada.
    2. Jonker, Nicole & van der Cruijsen, Carin & Bijlsma, Michiel & Bolt, Wilko, 2022. "Pandemic payment patterns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 143(C).
    3. Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Mitchell Nicholson, 2019. "2018 Merchant Acceptance Survey," Staff Analytical Notes 2019-31, Bank of Canada.
    4. Heng Chen & Marie-Hélène Felt & Christopher Henry, 2018. "2017 Methods-of-Payment Survey: Sample Calibration and Variance Estimation," Technical Reports 114, Bank of Canada.
    5. Janet Hua Jiang, 2020. "CBDC adoption and usage: some insights from field and laboratory experiments," Staff Analytical Notes 2020-12, Bank of Canada.
    6. Angelika Welte & Jozsef Molnar, 2021. "The market for acquiring card payments from small and medium-sized Canadian merchants," Business Economics, Palgrave Macmillan;National Association for Business Economics, vol. 56(2), pages 87-97, April.
    7. Engert, Walter & Fung, Ben & Segendorf, Björn, 2019. "A Tale of Two Countries: Cash Demand in Canada and Sweden," Working Paper Series 376, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
    8. Christopher Henry & Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Mitchell Nicholson, 2019. "2018 Bitcoin Omnibus Survey: Awareness and Usage," Discussion Papers 2019-10, Bank of Canada.
    9. Walter Engert & Ben Fung & Björn Segendorf, 2019. "A Tale of Two Countries: Cash Demand in Canada and Sweden," Discussion Papers 2019-7, Bank of Canada.
    10. Kim Huynh & Jozsef Molnar & Oleksandr Shcherbakov & Qinghui Yu, 2020. "Demand for Payment Services and Consumer Welfare: The Introduction of a Central Bank Digital Currency," Staff Working Papers 20-7, Bank of Canada.
    11. Claire Greene & Ellen A. Merry & Joanna Stavins, 2021. "Has COVID Changed Consumer Payment Behavior?," Working Papers 21-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    12. Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Mitchell Nicholson, 2020. "2019 Cash Alternative Survey Results," Discussion Papers 2020-8, Bank of Canada.
    13. Tatjana Dahlhaus & Angelika Welte, 2021. "Payment Habits During COVID-19: Evidence from High-Frequency Transaction Data," Staff Working Papers 21-43, Bank of Canada.
    14. Heng Chen & Walter Engert & Kim Huynh & Daneal O’Habib & Joy Wu & Julia Zhu, 2022. "Cash and COVID-19: What happened in 2021," Discussion Papers 2022-8, Bank of Canada.
    15. Heng Chen & Walter Engert & Kim Huynh & Gradon Nicholls & Mitchell Nicholson & Julia Zhu, 2020. "Cash and COVID-19: The impact of the pandemic on demand for and use of cash," Discussion Papers 2020-6, Bank of Canada.
    16. Anneke Kosse & Zhentong Lu & Gabriel Xerri, 2020. "An Economic Perspective on Payments Migration," Staff Working Papers 20-24, Bank of Canada.
    17. Solomon H. Tarlin, 2021. "The Future of Cash," Community Affairs Discussion Paper 21-03, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    18. Kovács Erzsébet & Vaskövi Ágnes, 2020. "Pension Pessimism in the Young Generation: Basics or Instincts to Blame?," Business Systems Research, Sciendo, vol. 11(2), pages 117-131, October.
    19. Andrea Saltelli, 2007. "Composite Indicators between Analysis and Advocacy," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 81(1), pages 65-77, March.
    20. Mitchell, O.S. & Piggott, J., 2016. "Workplace-Linked Pensions for an Aging Demographic," Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, in: Piggott, John & Woodland, Alan (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 0, pages 865-904, Elsevier.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bank notes; Central bank research; Coronavirus disease (COVID-19); Digital currencies and fintech; Econometric and statistical methods;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • E4 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates
    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bca:bocadp:21-12. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bocgvca.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bocgvca.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.